Table 1.

Demographics and baseline disease characteristicsa

CharacteristicMMF (n = 185)IVC (n = 185)Total (N = 370)
Gender (n [%])
    male28 (15.1)29 (15.7)57 (15.4)
    female157 (84.9)156 (84.3)313 (84.6)
Race (n [%])
    white75 (40.5)72 (38.9)147 (39.7)
    Asian62 (33.5)61 (33.0)123 (33.2)
    otherb48 (25.9)52 (28.1)100 (27.0)
Ethnicity (n [%])
    Hispanic64 (34.6)67 (36.2)131 (35.4)
    non-Hispanic121 (65.4)118 (63.8)239 (64.6)
Region (n [%])
    Asia57 (30.8)60 (32.4)117 (31.6)
    Latin America56 (30.3)50 (27.0)106 (28.6)
    United States/Canada37 (20.0)38 (20.5)75 (20.3)
    rest of world35 (18.9)37 (20.0)72 (19.5)
Renal biopsy class (n [%])
    III/III + V32 (17.3)26 (14.1)58 (15.7)
    IV/IV + V124 (67.0)128 (69.2)252 (68.1)
    V only29 (15.7)31 (16.8)60 (16.2)
Scarring on renal biopsy (n [%])c66 (35.7)56 (30.3)d122 (33.0)d
Serum creatinine (μmol/L [mg/dl]; mean ± SD)108.6 ± 1.2 (97.2 ± 1.1)92.7 ± 1.0 (56.9 ± 0.6)d100.6 ± 1.1 (80.0 ± 0.9)d
Urine protein/creatinine ratio (mean ± SD)4.1 ± 4.2e4.1 ± 3.2f4.1 ± 3.7e,f
Range of GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; n [%])d,g
    ≥9080 (43.2)86 (46.7)166 (45.0)
    ≥60 to <9053 (28.6)52 (28.3)105 (28.5)
    ≥30 to <6032 (17.3)34 (18.5)66 (17.9)
    <3020 (10.8)12 (6.5)32 (8.7)
Range of anti-dsDNA antibody titer (IU/ml; n [%])h
    <30 (negative)32 (18.4)23 (13.5)55 (15.9)
    30 to 60 (low positive)25 (14.4)24 (14.0)49 (14.2)
    >60 to 200 (positive)52 (29.9)40 (23.4)92 (26.7)
    >200 (strong positive)65 (37.4)84 (49.1)149 (43.2)
Range of C3 concentration (g/L; n [%])i
    >1.81 (0.6)1 (0.6)2 (0.6)
    0.9 to 1.8 (normal)50 (28.4)34 (19.5)84 (24.0)
    <0.9 (low)125 (71.0)139 (79.9)264 (75.4)
Range of C4 concentration (g/L; n [%])j
    >0.472 (1.1)1 (0.6)3 (0.9)
    0.16 to 0.47 (normal)70 (39.8)47 (27.2)117 (33.5)
    <0.16104 (59.1)125 (72.3)229 (65.6)
Age at enrollment (yr; mean ± SD)32.4 ± 11.231.3 ± 10.331.9 ± 10.7
Age at diagnosis of lupus nephritis (yr; mean ± SD)30.2 ± 11.028.8 ± 10.229.5 ± 10.6
Time since diagnosis of lupus nephritis (yr; median [range])k1.0 (1 to 21)1.0 (1 to 23)1.0 (1 to 23)
  • a Anti-dsDNA, antibodies reactive to double-stranded DNA; C3, complement factor 3; C4, complement factor 4.

  • b Race self-reported as black (46), Mexican-Mestizo (28), mixed race (9), Hispanic (3), North African (2), Chinese (1), South/Central America/Caribbean (3), Native American (1), Pacific Islander (1), Eritrean (1), East Indian (1), Middle Eastern (1), Latin (1), brown (1), or white (1).

  • c Scarring defined according to ISN classification of class III/IV active/chronic lupus nephritis.20

  • d Data missing for one patient in the IVC group.

  • e n = 180.

  • f n = 181.

  • g GFR was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease method.21

  • h Data missing for 11 patients in the MMF group and for 14 patients in the IVC group.

  • i Data missing for nine patients in the MMF group and for 11 patients in the IVC group.

  • j Data missing for nine patients in the MMF group and for 12 patients in the IVC group.

  • k Time since diagnosis was rounded up to 1.0 yr for patients whose time was <1 yr.