Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of participants stratified by gender and GFR

CharacteristicCKD Status (eGFR Measured in ml/min per 1.73 m2)
Men (n = 1295)Women (n = 1752)
<60 (n = 399)≥60 (n = 896)P for Difference<60 (n = 457)≥60 (n = 1297)P for Difference
Age (yr; mean ± SD)70.8 ± 9.263.6 ± 8.6<0.00172.5 ± 9.063.6 ± 8.7<0.001
SBP (mmHg; mean ± SD)148.1 ± 21.1146.0 ± 21.1<0.001152.7 ± 24.3146.1 ± 21.1<0.001
DBP (mmHg; mean ± SD)84.3 ± 10.983.1 ± 9.60.24083.7 ± 10.083.1 ± 9.60.280
Alcohol consumption (standard drinks/d; n [%])<0.001<0.001
    1 to 2206 (51.6)409 (45.6)216 (47.8)663 (50.9)
    3 to 449 (12.3)178 (19.9)23 (5.1)100 (7.7)
    5 to 825 (6.3)81 (9.0)1 (0.2)16 (1.2)
    ≥97 (1.8)34 (3.8)2 (0.4)8 (0.6)
Previous or current smoking (n [%])282 (70.7)576 (64.3)0.080171 (37.8)501 (38.5)0.120
Body mass index (kg/m2; mean ± SD)26.7 ± 4.026.0 ± 4.90.00426.2 ± 4.926.1 ± 4.80.670
Diabetes (n [%])36 (9.0)55 (6.1)0.14032 (7.1)60 (4.6)0.120
Acute coronary syndrome (n [%])75 (18.8)82 (9.2)<0.00151 (11.3)57 (4.4)<0.001
Sun-related skin damage (n [%])177 (44.4)266 (29.7)<0.001116 (25.7)201 (15.4)<0.001
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L; mean ± SD)5.5 ± 1.75.4 ± 1.40.3805.3 ± 1.85.0 ± 1.40.003
Total cholesterol (mmol/L; mean ± SD)5.8 ± 1.15.7 ± 1.10.8206.3 ± 1.16.1 ± 1.00.008
Tertiary education237 (59.4)564 (63.8)0.440204 (45.1)691 (53.1)0.007
eGFR (mmol/min per 1.73 m2; n [%])
    <202 (0.15)1 (0.06)
    20 to 3933 (2.6)45 (2.6)
    40 to 59364 (28.1)406 (23.2)
    60 to 79789 (60.9)1130 (64.4)
    80 to 89101 (7.8)168 (9.6)
    ≥906 (0.5)4 (0.2)
Serum creatinine concentration (mmol/L; n [%])
    40 to 89124 (13.8)870 (66.8)
    90 to 104480 (53.6)179 (39.6)432 (33.2)
    105 to 119160 (40.1)292 (32.6)173 (38.3)
    120 to 134150 (37.6)53 (11.7)
    135 to 37589 (22.3)47 (10.4)