Table 2.

Associations of circulating 25(OH)D concentration with prevalent and incident CAC in the MESAa

Parameter25(OH)DP for linear trend
≥15 ng/ml<15 ng/mlPer 10-ng/ml Lower Concentration
Prevalent CAC
    No. At risk (No. of events)1,004 (545)366 (178)1370 (723)
    model 1 (RR [95% CI])b1.00 (reference)1.02 (0.91 to 1.15)1.00 (0.97 to 1.04)0.92
    model 2 (RR [95% CI])c1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.87 to 1.11)0.98 (0.95 to 1.02)0.33
    model 3 (RR [95% CI])d1.00 (reference)0.99 (0.88 to 1.11)0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)0.28
Incident CAC
    No. At risk (No. of events)459 (86)188 (49)647 (135)
    model 1 (RR [95% CI])b1.00 (reference)1.58 (1.14 to 2.21)1.35 (1.11 to 1.64)0.002
    model 2 (RR [95% CI])c1.00 (reference)1.40 (0.99 to 1.99)1.23 (1.00 to 1.52)0.046
    model 3 (RR [95% CI])d1.00 (reference)1.38 (0.95 to 1.99)1.23 (1.00 to 1.52)0.049
  • aRR, relative risk.

  • bAdjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, site, season, and measurement batch.

  • cAdditionally adjusted for physical activity, BMI, and smoking.

  • dAdditionally adjusted for diabetes, BP, CRP, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.