Table 3.

Risk for adverse outcomes according to the clinical stage of CKD

CKD StageNo. of PatientsaNo. of EventsAnnual Event Rate (%)Age- and Gender-AdjustedMultivariable-Adjustedb
HR95% CIHR95% CI
Cardiovascular events
    no CKD (eGFR ≥60 and UACR <30)61253991.541.00Reference1.00Reference
    stage 1 (eGFR ≥90 and UACR ≥30)811742.191.601.25 to 2.061.461.14 to 1.89
    stage 2 (eGFR 60 to 89 and UACR ≥30)16711962.871.821.53 to 2.151.571.32 to 1.88
    stage 3 (eGFR 30 to 59)19902593.211.991.70 to 2.341.721.46 to 2.03
        UACR <30 in stage 312381222.371.491.21 to 1.841.371.11 to 1.69
        UACR ≥30 in stage 37521374.672.792.30 to 3.402.241.83 to 2.75
Cardiovascular death
    no CKD (eGFR ≥60 and UACR <30)61251440.541.00Reference1.00Reference
    stage 1 (eGFR ≥90 and UACR ≥30)811310.891.941.31 to 2.861.731.16 to 2.58
    stage 2 (eGFR 60 to 89 and UACR ≥30)16711091.552.722.12 to 3.492.251.74 to 2.90
    stage 3 (eGFR 30 to 59)19901431.712.792.20 to 3.542.301.80 to 2.93
        UACR <30 in stage 31238581.091.801.32 to 2.461.601.17 to 2.20
        UACR ≥30 in stage 3752852.774.343.31 to 5.703.262.46 to 4.32
Renal events
    no CKD (eGFR ≥60 and UACR <30)6125170.061.00Reference1.00Reference
    stage 1 (eGFR ≥90 and UACR ≥30)81130.091.390.41 to 4.751.240.36 to 4.27
    stage 2 (eGFR 60 to 89 and UACR ≥30)1671270.385.963.25 to 10.954.892.61 to 9.16
    stage 3 (eGFR 30 to 59)1990520.6211.226.41 to 19.639.565.35 to 17.10
        UACR <30 in stage 31238120.234.161.96 to 8.804.111.91 to 8.81
        UACR ≥30 in stage 3752401.3221.7512.22 to 38.7016.669.08 to 30.56
  • aForty-three patients with eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73m2 were excluded from this analysis.

  • bAdjusted for baseline covariates, including age, gender, duration of diabetes, SBP, history of currently treated hypertension, history of macrovascular disease, HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, log-transformed triglycerides, BMI, electrocardiogram abnormalities, current smoker, and current drinker.