Table 2.

Cox regression analysis of association between health literacy and mortality risk

Health Literacy LevelUnadjusted HR [95% CI]PAdjusteda HR [95% CI]PAdjustedb HR [95% CI]P
Limited literacy versus adequate literacy1.54 [1.04 to 2.28]0.0311.54 [1.01 to 2.35]0.0431.51 [0.99 to 2.30]0.057
REALM score (per 10 points lower)1.18 [1.07 to 1.30]0.0011.16 [1.04 to 1.29]0.0051.15 [1.04 to 1.28]0.008
  • Limited literacy, <9th grade reading level; adequate literacy, ≥9th grade reading level.

  • aAdjusted for age (nonlinear), gender, race, and diabetes status.

  • bAdjusted for age (nonlinear), gender, race, diabetes status, and baseline serum albumin.