Table 2.

HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality associated with AKI

ParameterCrude+Demographicsa+Comorbidities and Medication Useb+Hospitalization Detailsc+Postdischarge eGFR Categoriesd
No AKI (n = 782,222)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
With AKI (n = 82,711)2.10 (2.07 to 2.13)1.70 (1.68 to 1.73)1.55 (1.53 to 1.57)1.45 (1.43 to 1.47)1.41 (1.39 to 1.43)
By AKIN stage of AKIe
    I (n = 52,338)2.01 (1.98 to 2.04)1.62 (1.59 to 1.65)1.48 (1.45 to 1.50)1.39 (1.37 to 1.42)1.36 (1.34 to 1.38)
    II (n = 19,771)2.20 (2.15 to 2.26)1.80 (1.75 to 1.84)1.61 (1.57 to 1.66)1.51 (1.47 to 1.55)1.46 (1.42 to 1.50)
    III (n = 10,602)2.35 (2.27 to 2.43)1.98 (1.92 to 2.05)1.81 (1.74 to 1.87)1.71 (1.65 to 1.77)1.59 (1.54 to 1.65)
  • aModel adjusted for age, gender, race, and VA priority status.

  • bModel adjusted for demographics and previous AKI, rheumatoid arthritis, arrhythmia, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, CKD, previous cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, liver disease, osteoarthritis, peptic ulcer disease, peripheral vascular disease, valvular disease, low back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, history of seizures, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, other dementia, major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, tobacco use disorder, previous hospitalizations (previous month and previous year), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium-channel blockers, corticosteroids, diuretics, immunosuppressants, nitrates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral anticoagulants, platelet aggregation inhibitors, and other nephrotoxic drugs.

  • cModel adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and medication use and index admission primary diagnosis, mechanical ventilation use, and hospital length of stay.

  • dModel fully adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use, and hospitalization details and postdischarge eGFR categories.

  • eAKIN categories are defined by the ratio of the highest creatinine to the lowest creatinine. AKIN I is a ratio ≥1.5 and <2, AKIN II is a ratio ≥2 and <3, and AKIN III is a ratio ≥3.