Table 1.

Patient characteristics by modality at dialysis initiation before and after matching

CharacteristicsBefore MatchingAfter Matching
All HD, Mean (SD) or %All PD, Mean (SD) or %All PD versus All HDMatched HD, Mean (SD) or %Matched PD, Mean (SD) or %Unmatched PD, Mean (SD) or %Matched PD versus Unmatched PD
AORa (95% CI)PaAORb (95% CI)Pb
n92,187668863376337351
Age, years63.9 (15.2)58.4 (15.1)0.96 (0.95 to 0.96)<0.0159.0 (15.0)59.1 (15.0)45.8 (10.7)1.08 (1.06 to 1.09)<0.01
Gender
    women45.846.4Referent45.746.348.4Referent
    men54.253.60.83 (0.78 to 0.87)<0.0154.353.751.61.42 (0.94 to 2.15)0.09
Race
    white63.970.8Referent70.570.378.5Referent
    African American29.822.00.66 (0.62 to 0.71)<0.0122.422.512.53.24 (2.07 to 5.08)<0.01
    Asian1.11.11.04 (0.80 to 1.36)0.761.11.10.71.42 (0.15 to 13.2)0.74
    Native American3.64.81.28 (1.11 to 1.48)<0.014.64.67.70.61 (0.15 to 2.45)0.43
    other1.71.40.77 (0.61 to 0.98)0.031.41.40.55.77 (0.74 to 44.9)0.09
Ethnicity
    Hispanic-Mexican7.96.2Referent6.46.43.8Referent
    Hispanic-other5.34.81.23 (1.03 to 1.47)0.024.64.84.12.12 (0.74 to 6.08)0.15
    non-Hispanic86.889.01.32 (1.16 to 1.50)<0.0189.088.992.11.40 (0.31 to 6.36)0.63
Primary ESRD cause
    diabetes mellitus46.745.7Referent46.746.531.4Referent
    hypertension30.724.80.74 (0.67 to 0.81)<0.0125.125.512.02.27 (1.03 to 5.00)0.04
    GN7.914.01.15 (1.03 to 1.30)0.0212.913.032.30.72 (0.35 to 1.48)0.36
    polycystic kidney disease1.85.01.12 (0.94 to 1.33)0.204.44.316.70.73 (0.35 to 1.55)0.41
    other urologic disease2.72.40.68 (0.56 to 0.82)<0.012.42.42.22.07 (0.35 to 12.4)0.39
    other cause10.38.20.65 (0.57 to 0.73)<0.018.68.35.42.63 (0.92 to 7.53)0.07
Dual eligibilityc16.712.20.52 (0.48 to 0.57)<0.0112.412.72.210.3 (3.37 to 31.7)<0.01
Serum albumin, g/dl3.1 (0.7)3.5 (0.7)2.14 (2.05 to 2.24)<0.013.5 (0.7)3.5 (0.7)4.1 (0.6)0.27 (0.21 to 0.34)<0.01
Body mass index, kg/m227.7 (7.2)27.9 (6.4)1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.0427.9 (6.4)27.9 (6.4)27.5 (5.4)1.00 (0.98 to 1.03)0.68
Blood urea, mg/dl84.9 (34.1)78.6 (27.3)0.99 (0.99 to 1.00)<0.0178.9 (27.8)78.9 (27.6)73.5 (21.4)1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)0.04
eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m29.8 (4.8)9.8 (4.4)1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)0.079.9 (4.4)9.9 (4.4)9.3 (3.7)0.98 (0.91 to 1.06)0.62
Hemoglobin, g/dl9.9 (1.8)10.7 (1.8)1.20 (1.18 to 1.22)<0.0110.7 (1.8)10.7 (1.8)11.7 (1.6)0.69 (0.62 to 0.77)<0.01
Comorbid conditions
    congestive heart failure33.119.70.66 (0.62 to 0.71)<0.0120.920.73.12.84 (0.88 to 9.16)0.08
    ischemic heart disease25.919.90.93 (0.86 to 1.00)0.0520.520.75.71.36 (0.65 to 2.85)0.40
    myocardial infarction8.66.50.98 (0.87 to 1.10)0.706.86.81.51.77 (0.45 to 6.94)0.40
    cardiac arrest0.80.61.02 (0.73 to 1.43)0.890.60.70.2Inestimabled
    cardiac dysrhythmia6.54.91.13 (1.00 to 1.28)0.065.25.11.60.80 (0.26 to 2.44)0.69
    pericarditis0.50.41.00 (0.66 to 1.51)0.990.40.40.2Inestimabled
    cerebrovascular disease9.66.80.82 (0.74 to 0.91)<0.017.17.02.81.34 (0.46 to 3.89)0.57
    PVD14.610.20.86 (0.78 to 0.94)<0.0110.610.72.81.57 (0.47 to 5.20)0.43
    hypertension80.283.11.32 (1.23 to 1.43)<0.0182.982.888.20.46 (0.31 to 0.70)<0.01
    diabetes52.047.70.90 (0.82 to 0.97)0.0148.948.731.11.13 (0.52 to 2.47)0.74
    COPD8.34.40.65 (0.58 to 0.74)<0.014.64.60.72.65 (0.45 to 15.8)0.28
    tobacco use5.05.71.18 (1.04 to 1.34)0.015.95.66.60.81 (0.22 to 2.94)0.71
    malignant neoplasm6.44.30.80 (0.70 to 0.91)<0.014.64.4%1.12.28 (0.54 to 9.68)0.25
    alcohol/drug dependence2.10.90.50 (0.38 to 0.66)<0.010.90.9%0.1Inestimabled
    HIV+ status or AIDS1.00.50.88 (0.60 to 1.28)0.490.60.5%0.2Inestimabled
    unable to ambulate/transfer4.61.50.50 (0.40 to 0.62)<0.011.81.5%0.0Inestimabled
  • AOR, adjusted odds ratio; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR, estimated GFR; HD, hemodialysis; PD, peritoneal dialysis; PVD, peripheral vascular disease.

  • aAdjusted odds ratio from a logistic regression model of receiving peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis at dialysis initiation, with adjustment for all covariates in Table 1, in addition to ESRD Network and payer status.

  • bAdjusted odds ratio from a logistic regression model of matched versus unmatched peritoneal dialysis patients, adjusted for all estimable covariates in Table 1, in addition to ESRD Network.

  • cMedicare and Medicaid.

  • dAt least one imputed data set with zero comorbid cases in unmatched peritoneal dialysis patients.