Table 3.

Clinical surrogates for low nephron number and susceptibility to hypertension and renal disease in humans

Low birth weight44,47,49
Preterm birth47,49
Short stature45,67,68
Low kidney mass37,78
Reduced kidney volume79,80
Glomerulomegaly42,44,49
Gene polymorphisms: PAX2, RET78,82
Maternal gestational hyperglycemia, HBW62,118