Table 3.

Effect of sequentially adding patient and area characteristics on zip code racial composition odds ratios for receipt of nephrology care

ModelPercentage of Black Residents in Zip Code
5 to 14.9%15 to 24.9%25 to 50%>50%
11.11 (1.07 to 1.16)1.21 (1.14 to 1.29)1.36 (1.29 to 1.44)1.61 (1.52 to 1.7)
21.08 (1.03 to 1.13)1.14 (1.07 to 1.12)1.24 (1.17 to 1.31)1.41 (1.32 to 1.50)
31.08 (1.03 to 1.13)1.15 (1.08 to 1.22)1.26 (1.18 to 1.34)1.42 (1.33 to 1.52)
41.06 (1.02 to 1.11)1.12 (1.05 to 1.2)1.19 (1.12 to 1.27)1.34 (1.25 to 1.43)
51.05 (1.00 to 1.10)1.08 (1.01 to 1.16)1.12 (1.05 to 1.19)1.21 (1.12 to 1.3)
Final model (5) stratified by race
    White patients1.07 (1.01 to 1.12)1.12 (1.03 to 1.21)1.14 (1.04 to 1.23)1.26 (1.11 to 1.43)
    Black patients1.03 (0.92 to 1.16)1.03 (0.91 to 1.17)1.11 (0.98 to 1.24)1.19 (1.05 to 1.34)
  • Model 1 included only zip code racial composition. Model 2 added patient race to model 1 and model 3 added patient demographic and clinical variables to model 2. In model 4, patient-level socioeconomic status variables were added to the previous model. In model 5, zip code–level socioeconomic variables were added to model 4. The final two rows show the fully adjusted model (5) stratified by patient race. P values for all cells except for the first three columns for the black patients model were significant at the 0.05 level.