Table 5.

Unadjusted and adjusted secondary analyses by zip code category

OutcomesOdds RatiosPercentage of Black Residents in Zip Code
5 to 14.9%15 to 24.9%25 to 50%>50%
Late referral (n = 64,568)Unadjusted0.98 (0.91 to 1.05)0.89 (0.81 to 0.99)0.84 (0.76 to 0.92)1.05 (0.96 to 1.16)
Adjusted0.98 (0.91 to 1.06)0.89 (0.8 to 0.99)0.82 (0.73 to 0.91)0.96 (0.85 to 1.09)
Peritoneal dialysis (n = 64,568)Unadjusted0.92 (0.84 to 1.02)0.89 (0.78 to 1.01)0.79 (0.70 to 0.89)0.6 (0.53 to 0.68)
Adjusted1 (0.9 to 1.1)1.02 (0.89 to 1.17)0.97 (0.84 to 1.12)0.9 (0.76 to 1.07)
Pre-emptive renal transplant (n = 64,568)Unadjusted0.64 (0.56 to 0.72)0.53 (0.44 to 0.64)0.35 (0.28 to 0.42)0.19 (0.15 to 0.24)
Adjusted0.75 (0.65 to 0.86)0.82 (0.66 to 1.02)0.87 (0.69 to 1.09)1 (0.73 to 1.36)
AVF/AVG before HD (n = 56,394)Unadjusted0.96 (0.91 to 1.02)0.99 (0.92 to 1.07)0.97 (0.9 to 1.04)1.01 (0.95 to 1.08)
Adjusted0.95 (0.9 to 1.01)0.97 (0.9 to 1.06)0.92 (0.85 to 1.00)0.93 (0.85 to 1.02)
  • The zip codes categories are listed by percentage of black residents with the referent category being <5% black residents. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios are shown with 95% confidence intervals on the left and right sides of the table respectively. LCI, lower 95% confidence interval; UCI, upper 95% confidence interval; HD, hemodialysis; AVF, arteriovenous fistula; AVG, arteriovenous graft. These models were adjusted for patient-level (age, gender, race, comorbidities, employment, and insurance status) and zip code–level (median per capita income, owner-occupied housing units, percentage of population below poverty line, high school and college education, percentage employed in professional/managerial positions) characteristics.