Table 1.

Self-molecules that activate innate immunity

DAMPReceptor
AdenosineA1/A2A/A2B/A3
ATPP1/P2X/P2Y/NLRP3
BiglycanTLR2, TLR4
Cathepsin-BNLRP3
CpG DNA (hypomethylated)TLR9
DefensinsTLR4
DNA-nucleosomes-IgGTLR9 (FcR/BCR)
dsDNAAIM2, ?
FibrinogenTLR4
Heat-shock proteinsTLR2, TLR4
Heparan sulphateTLR4
HMGB1TLR2, TLR4, RAGE, RIG
HyaluronatesTLR2, TLR4
U1snRNP-IgGTLR7 (FcR/BCR)
Uric acid crystalsNLRP3
  • AIM, absent in melanoma; BCR, B cell receptor; HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1; NLRP, Nacht domain–, leucine-rich repeat–, and PYD-containing protein.