Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of participants by SBP categories (n = 4528)

CharacteristicSBP CategoryaP for Trend
Normal SBP (<120 mmHg; n = 2774)Prehypertension (120 to 139 mmHg; n = 1369)Stage 1 (140 to 159 mmHg; n = 261)Stage 2 (≥160 mmHg; n = 94)
Fructose intake (g/d; mean ± SD)71 ± 9376 ± 9686 ± 8198 ± 850.05
Age (years; mean ± SD)37 ± 1344 ± 1658 ± 1566 ± 12<0.0001
Gender (%)<0.0001
    male38404768
    female62605332
Ethnicity<0.07
    non-Hispanic white52525648
    non-Hispanic black18212027
    Mexican American26232021
    other4445
Smoking status (%)<0.0001
    never53494759
    former18232827
    current23252414
    unknown5310
Diabetes (%)2598<0.0001
Average daily METs exercise (mean ± SD)210 ± 356198 ± 256175 ± 229152 ± 1990.02
Waist circumference (in; mean ± SD)37 ± 639 ± 639 ± 538 ± 5<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2; mean ± SD)27 ± 629 ± 629 ± 628 ± 5<0.0001
Serum glucose levels (mg/dl; mean ± SD)90 ± 2397 ± 31101 ± 27102 ± 30<0.0001
Uric acid (mg/dl; mean ± SD)5.0 ± 1.35.4 ± 1.35.3 ± 1.35.3 ± 1.1<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl; mean ± SD)199 ± 44204 ± 42214 ± 49218 ± 32<0.0001
LDL (mg/dl; mean ± SD)129 ± 43138 ± 45147 ± 52144 ± 36<0.0001
HDL (mg/dl; mean ± SD)57 ± 1753 ± 1755 ± 1560 ± 14<0.0001
Triglycerides (mg/dl; mean ± SD)128 ± 100154 ± 132168 ± 180143 ± 88<0.0001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; mean ± SD)103 ± 2695 ± 2388 ± 2081 ± 18<0.0001
Dietary recall (mean ± SD)
    kilocalories2187 ± 8682300 ± 9012052 ± 7501849 ± 6790.21
    carbohydrate intake (g/d)274 ± 117281 ± 120252 ± 93240 ± 1060.03
    sodium (mg/d)3466 ± 15293557 ± 15803248 ± 13382863 ± 991<0.05
    potassium (mg/d)2688 ± 11342776 ± 11032671 ± 9542399 ± 7300.83
    alcohol intake (g/d)7 ± 1712 ± 278 ± 195 ± 120.0002
    vitamin C (mg/d)98 ± 9294 ± 8895 ± 7090 ± 570.15
  • a In accordance with the JNC 7 classification of hypertension.