Table 1.

Baseline patient characteristics of incident HD patients with digoxin use versus no digoxin use

CharacteristicNo Digoxin UseDigoxin UseP
N116,3154549
Demographic
    age (years)62.50 (0.04)69.40 (0.10)<0.0001
    male gender (%)53.5 (0.1)59.6 (0.1)<0.0001
    race (%)
        black31.90 (0.10)23.10 (0.10)<0.0001
        other9.50 (0.08)7.40 (0.07)
        white58.50 (0.10)69.50 (0.10)
Access (%)
    AVF22.00 (0.10)19.60 (0.10)0.001
    catheter55.30 (0.10)57.00 (0.10)
    graft17.90 (0.10)18.80 (0.10)
    unknown4.80 (0.06)4.70 (0.06)
Hemodynamic
    SBP (mmHg)143.400 (0.050)137.400 (0.200)<0.0001
    DBP (mmHg)73.500 (0.030)67.700 (0.100)<0.0001
    interdialytic weight gain (kg)2.300 (0.003)2.400 (0.010)<0.0001
    weight (kg)77.300 (0.060)74.900 (0.200)<0.0001
Comorbidity
    Charleson index4.700 (0.006)5.200 (0.020)<0.0001
    diabetes (%)63.4 (0.1)69.6 (0.1)<0.0001
Laboratory
    hemoglobin (g/dl)11.400 (0.004)11.400 (0.010)0.0009
    albumin (g/dl)3.500 (0.001)3.500 (0.006)<0.0001
    potassium (mEq/L)8.800 (0.002)8.800 (0.009)0.01
    calcium (mg/dl)4.500 (0.002)4.500 (0.008)0.60
    creatinine (mg/dl)6.600 (0.008)5.300 (0.030)<0.0001
Treatment parameters
    time (hours)3.600 (0.001)3.600 (0.006)<0.0001
    dialysate potassium (mEq/L)2.300 (0.002)2.400 (0.008)<0.0001
    dialysate calcium (mEq/L)2.600 (0.001)2.600 (0.005)<0.0001
Medications
    EPO (1000 U per session)7.20 (0.02)7.50 (0.10)0.004
    antiplatelet (%)34.3 (0.10)44.2 (0.10)<0.0001
    statin (%)33.0 (0.10)37.1 (0.10)<0.0001
    β blocker (%)51.0 (0.10)59.9 (0.10)<0.0001
    ACEI or ARB (%)40.9 (0.10)45.0 (0.10)<0.0001
  • Data are means (SE). ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; AVF, arteriovenous fistula; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; EPO, Epogen.