Table 2.

Mortality HR in digoxin users versus nonusers among incident HD patients

ParameternUnadjusted Model (HR [95% CI])Covariate- and Propensity Score–Adjusted Model (HR [95% CI])a
All incident hemodialysis patients120,8641.89 (1.91 to 1.97)1.28 (1.25 to 1.31)
Incident HD patient with only coexistent afib18401.55 (0.67 to 3.56)1.84 (1.55 to 2.18)
Incident HD patient with only coexistent CHF25,8511.55 (0.67 to 3.56)1.18 (1.13 to 1.23)
Incident HD patient with both coexistent afib + CHF90111.08 (0.38 to 3.08)1.20 (1.12 to 1.28)
  • aParameters used as baseline covariates in the Cox models and in the propensity score: Age, gender, race (white, black, other), cause of ESRD (diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, other), systolic and diastolic BP (pre- and postdialysis readings), weight, interdialytic weight gain, access (fistula, graft, catheter, unknown), dialysis adequacy (eKt/V with Kru), Charleson comorbidity index, diabetes status, coronary heart disease, laboratory values (calcium, phosphorus, albumin, hemoglobin, bicarbonate, white blood cell count, creatinine, parathyroid hormone), dialysate K, dialysate calcium, vitamin D use, EPO dosage, study entry date, facility-standardized mortality ratio, oral medication use (angiotensin receptor blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, nitroglycerine, clopidogrel, aspirin, warfarin, statin, β blocker), ultrafiltration rate, actual dialysis time, and residual renal function.

  • Legend: afib, atrial fibrillation; CHF, congestive heart failure.