Table 4.

Baseline patient characteristics by mean serum digoxin level in the first 90 days of long-term dialysis

Serum Digoxin Level (ng/ml)P
<0.600.60 to 0.991.00 to 2.20>2.20
N38155297379
Demographic
    age (years)67.1 (0.6)70.2 (0.5)71.2 (0.3)71.9 (1.3)<0.0001
    male gender (%)66.7 (1.1)63.6 (1.1)56.3 (1.1)51.9 (1.1)0.0005
    race (%)
        black24.9 (0.9)20.1 (0.9)18.8 (0.8)22.8 (0.9)0.13
        other7.3 (0.5)6.0 (0.5)6.4 (0.5)2.5 (0.3)
        white67.7 (1.0)73.9 (0.9)74.8 (0.9)74.7 (0.9)
Access (%)
    AVF20.5 (0.9)22.6 (0.9)19.9 (0.8)19.0 (0.8)0.66
    catheter53.3 (1.1)53.3 (1.1)56.4 (1.1)53.2 (1.1)
    graft21.0 (0.9)20.1 (0.9)19.2 (0.8)19.0 (0.8)
    unknown5.2 (0.5)4.0 (0.4)4.4 (0.4)8.9 (0.6)
Hemodynamic
    SBP (mmHg)137.2 (0.9)136.6 (0.7)136.4 (0.6)134.2 (2.2)0.62
    DBP (mmHg)69.0 (0.4)67.5 (0.4)66.1 (0.3)64.6 (0.9)<0.0001
    interdialytic weight gain (kg)2.50 (0.05)2.40 (0.04)2.40 (0.03)2.30 (0.10)0.09
    weight (kg)77.8 (1.0)75.2 (0.9)73.8 (0.7)73.4 (3.0)0.01
Comorbidity
    Charleson index5.40 (0.09)5.20 (0.08)5.30 (0.06)5.10 (0.20)0.44
    diabetes (%)73.8 (0.9)66.8 (1.1)69.0 (1.0)62.0 (1.1)0.07
Laboratory
    hemoglobin (g/dl)11.30 (0.06)11.40 (0.05)11.50 (0.03)11.30 (0.10)0.17
    albumin (g/dl)3.60 (0.02)3.60 (0.01)3.50 (0.01)3.40 (0.04)0.005
    potassium (mEq/L)4.50 (0.02)4.50 (0.02)4.50 (0.01)4.60 (0.06)0.30
    calcium (mg/dl)8.80 (0.03)8.80 (0.03)8.80 (0.02)8.80 (0.08)0.80
    creatinine (mg/dl)5.60 (0.11)5.30 (0.08)5.20 (0.06)5.70 (0.31)0.009
Treatment parameters
    time (hours)3.60 (0.02)3.60 (0.02)3.50 (0.01)3.40 (0.04)<0.0001
    dialysate potassium (mEq/L)2.39 (0.03)2.42 (0.02)2.42 (0.02)2.37 (0.06)0.65
    dialysate calcium (mEq/L)2.60 (0.02)2.60 (0.02)2.60 (0.01)2.60 (0.03)0.18
Medications
    EPO (1000 U per sessions)7.4 (0.3)7.4 (0.3)7.1 (0.2)8.0 (0.7)0.56
    antiplatelet (%)45.7 (1.1)48.4 (1.1)44.6 (1.1)30.4 (1.0)0.02
    statin (%)35.4 (1.1)39.1 (1.1)37.3 (1.1)32.9 (1.1)0.57
    β blocker (%)59.3 (1.1)60.0 (1.1)60.4 (1.1)57.0 (1.1)0.92
    ACEI or ARB (%)51.4 (1.1)46.4 (1.1)42.0 (1.1)44.3 (1.1)0.01
  • Data are means (SE). A total of 2564 (56%) patients did not have in-center digoxin level monitoring in the first 90 days of dialysis.

  • ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; AVF, arteriovenous fistula; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; EPO, Epogen.