Table 1.

Patient characteristics by endogenous EPO status and region

Australia-New ZealandEuropeJapanNorth America
Endogenous EPOOtherEndogenous EPOOtherEndogenous EPOOtherEndogenous EPOOther
n33124432312,7777364531168777
Percent2.697.42.597.51.198.91.398.7
Demographics
    mean age (year)63.261.761.5a63.255.8a61.555.6a62.0
    men (%)90.9a57.477.1a58.187.7a61.183.6a54.8
    black (%)0.0a0.50.3a1.70.00.028.429.8
    mean ESRD vintage (year)8.7a4.47.3a4.29.7a7.06.6a2.8
    current smoker (%)7.412.821.2a15.740.6a22.932.6a19.3
Comorbidities (%)
    coronary disease45.558.141.241.727.427.862.657.3
    cancer9.113.511.513.02.7a7.25.3a12.4
    cardiovascular, other48.533.842.438.034.228.137.432.8
    cerebrovascular disease30.316.514.915.79.613.518.318.7
    congestive heart failure27.338.327.931.017.816.737.945.7
    diabetes mellitus24.240.818.9a28.123.331.040.5a52.5
    gastrointestinal bleeding0.0a5.23.1a5.64.14.04.37.3
    HIV/AIDS0.00.10.0a0.40.0a0.61.62.3
    hypertension75.886.468.4a78.437.5a66.386.788.0
    lung disease12.514.615.211.71.41.916.415.1
    neurological disease12.110.07.19.54.16.56.1a12.2
    psychiatric disorder18.219.517.617.52.73.115.7a24.5
    peripheral vascular disease27.333.329.426.413.713.231.929.0
    recurrent cellulitis/gangrene15.211.78.77.05.52.710.510.1
Cause of ESRD (%)b
    diabetes mellitus21.226.110.818.519.227.034.537.8
    glomerulonephritis36.421.519.517.853.448.515.59.3
    hypertension0.010.48.115.20.03.819.826.0
    cystic disease24.25.734.77.24.13.812.12.9
    other cause18.236.326.941.323.317.018.124.1
Laboratory/treatment measures (mean or %)
    BMI (kg/m2)25.626.525.3a24.722.7a20.628.6a26.4
    albumin (g/dl)3.713.703.92a3.763.803.773.83a3.68
    PTH (pg/ml)487317316275217206400a304
    Tsat (%)24.027.926.827.626.926.127.327.1
    ferritin (ng/ml)177a517296a447233249327a467
    catheter hemoaccess (%)6.113.26.3a18.71.40.716.7a27.5
    Kt/V1.42a1.541.381.411.29a1.341.481.48
    mean (SD) hemoglobin (g/dl)13.4a (± 1.0)11.6 (±1.5)13.5a (± 1.1)11.4 (±1.6)13.1a (± 1.0)10.0 (± 1.3)13.7a (± 1.2)11.6 (± 1.5)
    median (IQR) hemoglobin (g/dl)13.2 (12.7 to 14.1)11.6 (10.7 to 12.6)13.3 (12.6 to 14.1)11.4 (10.4 to 12.4)12.8 (12.4 to 13.6)10.0 (9.2 to 10.8)13.6 (12.7 to 14.3)11.6 (10.7 to 12.5)
    iron use (%)32.3a76.151.1a73.316.726.153.6a65.0
    active vitamin D use (%)33.333.339.934.950.745.550.944.8
    mean (SD) epoetin dose (units/wk)10,250 (±9,073)9326 (±8497)4874 (±2967)16,831 (±15,810)
    median (IQR) epoetin dose (units/wk)8000 (4000 to 12,000)7000 (4000 to 12,000)4500 (3000 to 6000)12,000 (6000 to 22,500)
    mean (SD) darbepoetin dose (mcg/wk)53 (±55)50 (±54)23 (±14)66 (±84)
    median (IQR) darbepoetin dose (mcg/wk)40 (23 to 60)40 (20 to 60)20 (13 to 30)40 (21 to 75)
  • IQR, interquartile range, 25th to 75th percentile; Tsat, transferrin saturation.

  • aP < 0.05 versus Other patients within region (t test).

  • bCauses of ESRD differed significantly between groups (P < 0.05, χ2 test) in each region, except Japan.