Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of patients with type 1 diabetes and macroalbuminuria form the FinnDiane cohort, divided by outcomes

Baseline ParametersAlive without ESRD, n = 326ESRD, n = 210Dead without ESRD, n = 56
Men, n (%)186 (57%)131 (62%)35 (63%)
Age (years)40.5 ± 9.941.6 ± 9.347.7 ± 12.3a
Duration of diabetes (years)29.1 ± 8.128.9 ± 8.032.8 ± 8.2a
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.1 ± 3.625.6 ± 4.5a26.4 ± 4.6
WHR0.89 ± 0.080.91 ± 0.090.93 ± 0.09a
eGDR (mg/kg/min)4.4 ± 1.83.7 ± 1.6a3.9 ± 1.8a
Ever smoking n (%)186 (57%)135 (64%)a37 (65%)
Macrovascular disease, n (%)45 (14%)45 (21%)20 (36%)a
Laser treatment, n (%)253 (78%)176 (84%)44 (78%)
HbA1c (%)8.8 ± 1.49.4 ± 1.6a9.0 ± 1.4
Insulin dose (units per kg)0.71 ± 0.230.64 ± 0.20a0.66 ± 0.23
Antihypertensive medication n (%)305 (94%)205 (98%)54 (96%)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)140 ± 17150 ± 21a150 ± 22a
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82 ± 1084 ± 1080 ± 10
Lipid-lowering medication n (%)59 (18%)73 (35%)a11 (20%)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.2 ± 0.95.6 ± 1.2a5.6 ± 1.0a
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.3 ± 0.83.5 ± 1.1a3.5 ± 1.0
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.2 (0.9 to 1.7)1.7 (1.2 to 2.4)a1.5 (1.2 to 2.3)a
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.4
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)67 ± 2332 ± 19a58 ± 24a
  • Data are means with SD or medians with interquartile range. WHR, waist-to-hip ratio; eGDR, estimated glucose disposal rate; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  • aVersus alive without ESRD, P < 0.05.