Table 3.

HRs for baseline characteristics of patients with T1D and macroalbuminuria (CKD stages 1 to 3 only) in Cox proportional hazard analysis of time to onset of ESRD

Baseline CharacteristicUnivariate ModelMultivariate Model
HR95% CIPHR95% CIP
One-stage increase of CKD2.852.13 to 3.80<0.00012.852.13 to 3.82<0.0001a
1% increase of HbA1c1.241.11 to 1.39<0.00021.321.17 to 1.48<0.0001a
Doubling of ACR1.821.54 to 2.16<0.00011.681.42 to 1.99<0.0001a
Sex (reference female)0.730.50 to 1.070.11
Age (10-year increase)1.050.82 to 1.340.70
Diabetes duration (10-year increase)0.900.70 to 1.150.39
Systolic blood pressure (10-mmHg increase)1.020.91 to 1.130.74
BMI (1-unit increase)0.980.94 to 1.020.35
Total cholesterol (20-mg/dl increase)1.121.03 to 1.210.0060.990.91 to 1.080.89a
HDL cholesterol (10-mg/dl decrease)1.040.92 to 1.170.58
Smoking (reference nonsmokers)1.340.87 to 2.060.18
Statin use (reference not treated)1.821.12 to 2.960.021.490.91 to 2.450.12a
  • The effect of CKD stage was uniform across the three stages tested. The quadratic and cubic terms for continuous variables were not significant. There were no significant interactions between regressors.

  • aVariable included in the multivariate model.