Table 5.

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with type 1 diabetes and macroalbuminuria according to the origin of the cohort

Joslin Cohort (n = 423)FinnDiane Cohort (n = 592)13Steno Cohort (n = 397)14
Characteristic at enrollment
    enrollment year1991 to 20041995 to 20061993 to 2005
    ascertainmentClinic patientsCountrywideClinic patients and referralsa
    age (years)38.7 ± 8.841.6 ± 10.242.1 ± 10.6
    duration of T1D (years)25.3 ± 8.329.4 ± 8.228.3 ± 8.9
    HbA1c (%)9.0 ± 1.79.0 ± 1.59.4 ± 1.5
    systolic BP (mmHg)133 ± 18145 ± 20145 ± 22
    albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h)797bproteinuria in the past609b
    eGFR (ml/min)66 ± 3452 ± 2667 ± 28
    using antihypertensive drug (%)70b9575
Outcome measures
    duration of follow-up (years)6.9 (5.2, 12.0)c9.9 (7.3, 10.6)c11.3 (0 to 12.3)d
    number of ESRD172 (5.8)e210 (5.1)e70 (1.6)e
    number of pre-ESRD deaths29 (1.0)e56 (1.4)e98 (2.2)e,f
  • aReferred for measurement of GFR.

  • bACE-I or ARB.

  • cMedian (25th, 75th percentile).

  • dMedian (range).

  • eNumber of events (rate per 100 person-years).

  • fEstimated number: total deaths were 126 without specification of how many were without ESRD. We assumed mortality after ESRD was the same as in the Joslin cohort, and this left 98 deaths pre-ESRD.