Table 1.

Participant characteristics: Overall and by percent annual decline in eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year), 2002 to 2008

VariableOverall (n = 2574)Annual % decline in eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year)aP
≤5% (n = 2353)>5% (n = 221)
Study population
    years followed, median (IQR)7 (5,7)7 (6,7)5 (3,7)
    number of GFR measures, median (IQR)7 (5,7)7 (5,7)5 (3,7)
    male1021 (39.7%)928 (39.4%)93 (42.1%)0.47
    mean age at baseline (SD)48.4 (16.0)47.7 (15.7)56.0 (17.8)<0.001
    mean SBP at baseline (SD)127.6 (19.5)126.6 (18.7)137.4 (24.3)<0.001
    mean DBP at baseline (SD)74.6 (9.6)74.4 (9.4)76.2 (11.5)0.02
    mean baseline BMI, kg/m2 (SD)b28.6 (5.8)28.5 (5.8)29.0 (6.4)0.008
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
    mean eGFR at baseline (SD)84.0 (18.5)84.2 (17.9)81.2 (24.3)<0.001
    category of baseline eGFR
        ≥90897 (34.9%)821 (34.9%)76 (34.4%)
        60 to 891479 (57.5%)1372 (58.3%)107 (48.4%)<0.001
        30 to 59188 (7.3%)156 (6.6%)32 (14.5%)
        <3010 (0.4%)4 (0.2%)6 (2.7%)
    median annual change (IQR)−0.78 (−2.2, 0.53)−0.57 (−1.7, 0.7)−5.66 (−7.7,−4.4)
    median % annual change (IQR)−0.97 (−2.60, 0.62)−0.7% (−2.1%, 0.8%)−6.9% (−9.2%, −5.6%)
Risk factors
    diabetes366 (14.2%)298 (12.7%)68 (30.8)%<0.001
    cardiovascular disease192 (7.5%)141 (6.0%)51 (23.1%)<0.001
    hypertension795 (30.9%)679 (28.9%)116 (52.5%)<0.001
    mean age at baseline (SD)48.4 (16.0)47.7 (15.7)56.0 (17.8)<0.001
        <40 years793 (30.8%)751 (31.9%)42 (19.0%)
        40 to 60 years1166 (45.3%)1088 (46.2%)78 (35.3%)<0.001
    >60 years615 (23.9%)514 (21.8%)101 (45.7%)
Covariates
    obesity919 (35.7%)816 (34.7%)103 (46.6%)<0.001
    family history
        kidney disease60 (2.3%)55 (2.3%)5 (2.3%)0.99
        hypertension1148 (44.6%)1044 (44.4%)104 (47.1%)0.48
        diabetes728 (28.3%)647 (27.5%)81 (36.7%)0.005
Screening tests (at baseline)
    albuminuriac253 (9.8%)202 (8.6%)51 (23.1%)<0.001
    dipstick protein
        >Trace145 (5.6%)111 (4.7%)34 (15.4%)<0.001
        ≥1 g/L63 (2.5%)39 (1.7%)24 (10.9%)<0.001
        ≥3 g/L42 (1.6%)25 (1.1%)17 (7.7%)<0.001
  • n is given as a percentage unless otherwise indicated. BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated GFR; IQR, interquartile range; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • aEstimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation.28

  • bMissing two observations for BMI.

  • cRandom albumin to creatinine ratio >2.0 mg/mmol (17 mg/g for men or >2.8 mg/mmol (25 mg/g) for women).31,32