Table 3.

Comparison of the diagnostic utility of thresholds for dipstick protein and albuminuria at baseline to identify patients with future rapid kidney function decline: Overall and by risk subsets of the population

n%Pretest Probability of RKFDScreen Positive (%)False-Positive RateLR+/LR−Posttest probability of RKFDNNTSNNTF
    dipstick protein
        ≥1 g/L632.
        ≥3 g/L421.
No risk factorsb139354%0.05
    dipstick protein
        ≥1 g/L151.
        ≥3 g/L110.
With risk factorsa118146%0.13
    dipstick protein
        ≥1 g/L484.
        ≥3 g/L312.
    dipstick protein
        ≥1 g/L339.
        ≥3 g/L215.
Other risksc81559%0.11
    dipstick protein
        ≥1 g/L01.
        ≥3 g/L7241.
  • LR+/LR−, ratio of positive to negative likelihood ratios; NNTF, number of patients needed to follow with serial serum-creatinine measurements to identify one case of RKFD (the inverse of the prevalence of RKFD among screen positive); NNTS, number of patients needed to screen to identify one positive result (the inverse of the prevalence of a positive screening result); RKFD, rapid kidney function decline (% annual eGFR decline >5%).

  • aRandom albumin to creatinine ratio >2.0 mg/mmol (17 mg/g for men or >2.8 mg/mmol (25 mg/g) for women).25,26

  • bAge >60 years, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes.

  • cAge >60 years, cardiovascular disease, or hypertension.