Table 1.

Main clinical and biochemical characteristics of study patients according to serum phosphate quartiles

1st and 2nd Phosphate QuartilesP3rd Phosphate QuartileP4th Phosphate QuartileP
Ramipril (n = 81)Placebo (n = 85)Ramipril (n = 48)Placebo (n = 44)Ramipril (n = 36)Placebo (n = 37)
Age (years)51 ± 1352 ± 120.5548 ± 1449 ± 160.9246 ± 1345 ± 150.63
Male sex, n (%)68 (84%)72 (84.7%)0.8936 (75%)30 (68.2%)0.4728 (77.8%)18 (50.0%)0.01
Urinary sodium (mEq/24 h)98 ± 3989 ± 470.2585 ± 3688 ± 400.7475 ± 2778 ± 410.71
Urinary urea (mg/24 h)1067 ± 583984 ± 4700.351017 ± 4281010 ± 4490.94811 ± 392844 ± 2300.69
On treatment with Ca supplements, n (%)2 (2.5%)2 (2.4%)0.961 (2.1%)0 (0%)0.340 (0%)1 (2.7%)0.32
On treatment with Vit. D analogs, n (%)1 (1.2%)1 (1.2%)0.972 (4.2%)2 (4.5%)0.935 (13.9%)2 (5.4%)0.22
Smokers, n (%)19 (23.5%)10 (11.8%)0.058 (16.7%)9 (20.5%)0.6410 (27.8%)7 (18.9%)0.37
Diabetes, n (%)4 (4.9%)5 (5.9%)0.796 (12.5%)5 (11.4%)0.873 (8.3%)2 (5.4%)0.62
Cholesterol (mg/dl)241 ± 56240 ± 530.96236 ± 53248 ± 620.34258 ± 109250 ± 550.71
Albumin (g/dl)3.9 ± 0.53.9 ± 0.50.703.9 ± 0.53.9 ± 0.40.783.6 ± 1.23.8 ± 0.40.53
Glucose (mg/dl)104 ± 26105 ± 340.89116 ± 55110 ± 470.5798 ± 23105 ± 380.34
Calcium (mg/dl)9.1 ± 1.49.3 ± 1.00.539.4 ± 0.59.4 ± 0.60.719.2 ± 0.69.1 ± 0.60.85
Phosphate (mg/dl)2.8 ± 0.52.9 ± 0.40.073.8 ± 0.23.7 ± 0.20.364.6 ± 0.64.5 ± 0.40.15
Hemoglobin (g/dl)14.2 ± 1.314.0 ± 1.70.5513.7 ± 2.012.9 ± 1.60.0412.6 ± 1.912.2 ± 1.70.38
Systolic pressure (mmHg)145 ± 22146 ± 170.86147 ± 15145 ± 180.56146 ± 18148 ± 190.69
Diastolic pressure (mmHg)91 ± 1191 ± 120.7291 ± 1487 ± 100.1389 ± 1191 ± 110.58
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)109 ± 14110 ± 130.77110 ± 13107 ± 110.20108 ± 12110 ± 110.57
Urinary protein (g/24 h)2.3 (1.3–3.7)3.0 (1.5–4.3)0.112.7 (1.5–4.0)2.6 (1.4–3.9)0.573.8 (2.2–7.8)4.0 (2.0–6.6)0.61
Iohexol GFR (ml/min/1.73m2)52 ± 2047 ± 170.0545 ± 2040 ± 170.1535 ± 1631 ± 130.27
  • 1st and 2nd quartiles, serum phosphate <3.45 mg/dl; 3rd phosphate quartile, 3.45–4.00 mg/dl; 4th phosphate quartile, >4.00 mg/dl. Data are expressed mean ± SD or as percent frequency, as appropriate.