Table 4.

Interaction analysis between Ramipril treatment and serum phosphate strata for (a) ESRD alone and (b) in combination to doubling of serum creatinine levels

(a) End stage renal disease (ESRD)
Adjusted for Confounders, Gender, and Systolic BP Hazard ratio, 95% CI, and P-value
Treatment with Ramipril (0 = no; 1 = yes)P for interaction = 0.034
Phosphate strata [1 = I/II quartile; 2 = III quartile; 3 = IV quartile]
Treatment * phosphate strata
Albumin (1 g/dl)0.46 (0.27–0.77), P = 0.003
Hemoglobin (1 g/dl)0.89 (0.78–1.02), P = 0.10
Iohexol GFR (1 ml/min/1.73m2)0.94 (0.92–0.96), P < 0.001
Urinary protein (1 g/24 h)1.13 (1.04–1.23), P = 0.003
Gender (0 = M; 1 = F)1.56 (0.85–2.85), P = 0.15
Systolic pressure (1 mmHg)1.03 (1.01–1.04), P < 0.001
(b) ESRD/doubling of serum creatinine
Adjusted for confounders, gender and systolic BP Hazard ratio, 95% CI, and P-value
Treatment with Ramipril (0 = no; 1 = yes)P for interaction = 0.021
Phosphate strata [1 = I/II quartile; 2 = III quartile; 3 = IV quartile]
Treatment * phosphate strata
Albumin (1 g/dl)0.53 (0.33–0.88), P = 0.01
Hemoglobin (1 g/dl)0.91 (0.80–1.04), P = 0.17
Iohexol GFR (1 ml/min/1.73m2)0.95 (0.93–0.96), P < 0.001
Urinary protein (1 g/24 h)1.12 (1.04–1.21), P = 0.003
Gender (0 = M; 1 = F)1.34 (0.76–2.36), P = 0.23
Systolic pressure (1 mmHg)1.02 (1.01–1.04), P = 0.001
  • Data are expressed as hazard ratio, 95% CI, and P-values.