Table 2.

Final characteristics of patients investigated according to treatment time (either all hypertension medications upon awakening or ≥1 medication at bedtime)

VariableaAwakening (n = 332)Bedtime (n = 329)P between groups
Hypertension treatment
    Number of medications2.3 ± 1.12.2 ± 1.50.544
    1 medication (%)31.937.70.119
    2 medications (%)19.013.70.066
    ≥3 medications (%)49.148.60.902
    ARB (%)55.458.70.481
    ACEI (%)21.717.00.130
    CCB (%)48.252.30.285
    α-blocker (%)25.627.40.633
    ß-blocker (%)19.921.30.692
    Diuretic (%)59.649.50.010
    Other medications
    Statins (%)32.530.40.554
Low-dose aspirinb (%)15.715.20.869
Clinic and ambulatory BP
Clinic SBP (mmHg)c146.8 ± 24.6146.7 ± 21.10.953
Clinic DBP (mmHg)c80.5 ± 14.882.2 ± 13.40.112
Awake SBP mean (mmHg)128.3 ± 17.7129.3 ± 15.20.419
Asleep SBP mean (mmHg)122.6 ± 21.3116.7 ± 16.8<0.001
48-hour SBP mean (mmHg)126.5 ± 17.8125.4 ± 15.00.384
Sleep-time relative SBP decline (%)4.4 ± 9.89.7 ± 7.7<0.001
Awake DBP mean (mmHg)73.4 ± 11.876.8 ± 11.9<0.001
Asleep DBP mean (mmHg)66.3 ± 12.065.2 ± 10.50.205
48-hour DBP mean (mmHg)71.1 ± 11.473.1 ± 11.10.024
Sleep-time relative DBP decline (%)9.3 ± 11.414.7 ± 8.8<0.001
Nondipper (%)71.141.0<0.001
Controlled ambulatory BP (%)45.256.50.003
Controlled awake BP (%)67.264.10.411
Controlled asleep BP (%)54.867.2<0.001
  • a Values are shown as mean ± SD; n is number of patients. The sleep-time relative BP decline, an index of BP dipping, is defined as the percent decline in mean BP during nocturnal sleep relative to the mean BP during daytime activity and is calculated as follows: [(awake BP mean − asleep BP mean)/awake BP mean] × 100. Nondipper, patients with sleep time relative to SBP decline <10%, using data sampled ABPM for 48 consecutive hours. ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; CCB, calcium channel blocker.

  • b Aspirin dosage was 100 mg/d.

  • c Values correspond to the average of six conventional BP measurements obtained for each subject at the clinic before starting 48-hour ABPM.