Table 2.

Features and pitfalls of commonly used strategies to induce loss of function of rMoPh

CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor mouse102
 conventional use
  ablation of CD11c+ rMoPh in vivo to study loss of DC function within the kidney (Table 1)
 degree of fidelity
  CD11c is expressed by DCs systemically, not just within the kidney
  CD11c is expressed by the majority of CD11b+ rMoPh, which may also perform functions associated with Mø
  CD11c is expressed by other cells such as activated T lymphocytes, alveolar Mø, and splenic marginal zone Mø
  pitfalls
  experimental outcomes are confounded by loss of function of other cells that express CD11c, both within and outside the kidney, including rMoPh that may function as Mø (Table 1); as a result, DC-dependent and -independent functions of rMoPh may not be separable, and products from rapid death of CD11c+ cells may also influence immune responses
CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor mouse103
 conventional use
  ablation of CD11b+ rMoPh in vivo to study loss of Mø function within the kidney (Table 1)
 degree of fidelity
  CD11b is expressed by Mø systemically, not just within the kidney
  CD11b is expressed by the majority of CD11c+ rMoPh, which may also perform functions associated with DCs
  CD11b is expressed by other cells such as monocytes, B lymphocytes, and granulocytes
 pitfalls
  experimental outcomes are confounded by the loss of other cells that express CD11b, both within and outside the kidney, including rMoPh that may function as DCs (Table 1); as a result, Mø-dependent and -independent functions of rMoPh may not be separable, and products from rapid death of CD11b+ cells may also influence inflammatory responses
Clondronate liposomes104
 conventional use
  ablation of phagocytic rMoPh, often to study loss of phagocytic function within the kidney
 degree of fidelity
  all mononuclear phagocytic cells are ablated systemically
  rMoPh are broadly phagocytic
  does not discriminate between phagocytic rMoPh performing antigen-dependent versus -independent functions
 pitfalls
  experimental outcomes are confounded by the loss of all phagocytic cells, both within and outside the kidney; as a result, DC- and Mø-dependent functions of rMoPh may not be separable, and products from rapid death of phagocytic cells may also influence immune and inflammatory responses