Table 3.

Common risk factors for CVD in children with CKD

Risk FactorsCKD (%)aDialysis (%)Transplant (%)References
Traditional
 hypertension47–5452–7563–8115,21,25,31,5458
 dyslipidemia4533–8755–8419,21
 obesity158-1112–2220,21,25,59
 hyperglycemia4112220,21
Uremia related
 anemia38–4840–6732–6422,23,25,57,6062
 hyperparathyroidism217257,63
 increased calcium-phosphorus product53–5525,62
 increased C-reactive protein7664
 hypoalbuminemia4740–6062,57
  • aData are from CKiD study15,19,20 and North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies registry.23,54,57