Table 4.

Adjusted hazard ratios of death associated with race, income, Gini Index, and residential segregation (n=580,629)

CharacteristicsModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
HR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P Value
Race
White1.001.001.001.00
Black0.73 (0.72–0.75)<0.0010.70 (0.69–0.72)<0.0010.70 (0.69–0.71)<0.0010.70 (0.69–0.71)<0.001
Income
 $2500 to <$20,0001.08 (1.06–1.11)<0.0011.06 (1.04–1.09)<0.0011.07 (1.05–1.09)<0.001
 $20,000 to <$30,0001.04 (1.03–1.06)<0.0011.04 (1.02–1.05)<0.0011.04 (1.02–1.05)<0.001
 $30,000 to <$40,0001.001.001.00
 $40,000 to <$50,0000.99 (0.97–1.00)0.0320.99 (0.98–1.00)0.1060.99 (0.98–1.00)0.057
 $50,000 to <$60,0000.97 (0.95–0.98)<0.0010.97 (0.96–0.99)<0.0010.97 (0.95–0.98)<0.001
 $60,000 to <$70,0000.95 (0.93–0.97)<0.0010.95 (0.93–0.97)<0.0010.95 (0.93–0.97)<0.001
 ≥$70,0000.94 (0.92–0.96)<0.0010.94 (0.92–0.96)<0.0010.94 (0.92–0.96)<0.001
Gini Indexa
 First quartile (lowest)1.001.00
 Second quartile1.00 (0.98–1.03)0.861.00 (0.97–1.02)0.77
 Third quartile1.01 (0.99–1.03)0.281.00 (0.98–1.02)0.87
 Fourth quartile (highest)1.06 (1.04–1.09)<0.0011.04 (1.02–1.07)<0.001
Residential segregationb
 First quartile (lowest)1.00
 Second quartile1.02 (1.00–1.05)0.106
 Third quartile1.03 (1.01–1.05)0.017
 Fourth quartile (highest)1.05 (1.02–1.07)<0.001
  • In addition to the variables presented in the table, Cox proportional hazards model also adjusted for sex, age, year of dialysis initiation, BMI, smoking, diabetes, polycystic kidney disease, AIDS nephropathy, insurance, prior employment status, and comorbid conditions (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, and cancer) in each model.

  • a Quartile definitions for Gini Index and residential segregation were as follows: for Gini Index, 0.33–0.41, 0.41–0.43, 0.43–0.46, and 0.46–0.60; for residential segregation, 0–39.50, 39.50–48.95, 48.95–58.60, and 58.60–94.00.