Table 5.

Adjusted hazard ratios of death associated with income, Gini Index, and residential segregation, by race

CharacteristicsWhite (n=370,861)Black (n=209,768)
HR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P Value
Income
 $2500 to <$20,0001.02 (0.96–1.09)0.531.08 (1.05–1.11)<0.001
 $20,000 to <$30,0001.04 (1.02–1.05)<0.0011.04 (1.01–1.06)0.002
 $30,000 to <$40,0001.001.00
 $40,000 to <$50,0000.99 (0.98–1.01)0.300.96 (0.93–0.99)0.01
 $50,000 to <$60,0000.97 (0.96–0.99)<0.0010.95 (0.91–1.00)0.03
 $60,000 to <$70,0000.95 (0.93–0.98)<0.0010.91 (0.86–0.96)0.001
 ≥$70,0000.94 (0.92–0.97)<0.0010.95 (0.89–1.00)0.05
Gini Indexa
 First quartile (lowest)1.001.00
 Second quartile1.00 (0.98–1.02)1.000.98 (0.93–1.04)0.51
 Third quartile1.01 (0.99–1.03)0.200.96 (0.91–1.01)0.10
 Fourth quartile (highest)1.06 (1.04–1.09)<0.0010.99 (0.94–1.04)0.63
Residential segregationa
 First quartile (lowest)1.001.00
 Second quartile1.00 (0.98–1.03)0.811.06 (1.02–1.11)0.006
 Third quartile1.01 (0.99–1.03)0.351.07 (1.03–1.12)0.002
 Fourth quartile (highest)1.01 (0.99–1.04)0.271.13 (1.09–1.18)<0.001
  • Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for income, Gini Index, segregation, sex, age and year of dialysis initiation, BMI, smoking, diabetes, polycystic kidney disease, AIDS nephropathy, insurance, prior employment status, and comorbid conditions (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, and cancer).

  • a Quartile definitions for Gini Index and residential segregation were as follows: for Gini Index, 0.33–0.41, 0.41–0.43, 0.43–0.46, and 0.46–0.60; for residential segregation, 0–39.50, 39.50–48.95, 48.95–58.60, and 58.60–94.00.