Table 3.

Patient characteristics by residential segregation quartile

CharacteristicsResidential SegregationP Valuea
First (n=60,436)Second (n=97,153)Third (n=131,252)Fourth (n=300,195)
Black race (%)32.023.030.343.9<0.001
Male sex (%)54.655.655.154.7<0.001
Mean age ± SD (yr)63.6±14.764.5±14.664.1±14.763.9±15.1<0.001
Mean BMI ± SD (kg/m2)28.6±7.628.5±7.628.5±7.728.2±7.6<0.001
Median income (interquartile range) ($)37,315 (28,428–47,270)38,785 (31,357–48,828)37,679 (29,941–47,839)37,014 (27,624–48,423)<0.001
 Among non-Hispanic whites<0.001
  Patients (n)41,07374,85691,435168,345
  Income ($)41,335 (35,275–50,967)41,098 (35,017–51,182)40,696 (34,412–51,181)43,560 (35,614–54,854)
 Among non-Hispanic blacks<0.001
  Patients (n)19,36322,29739,817131,850
  Income ($)23,650 (19,060–31,600)25,726 (20,136–35,824)26,494 (20,320–36,563)27,670 (21,430–36,261)
Current smoker (%)6.86.67.05.8<0.001
Diabetes (%)56.155.656.154.4<0.001
Polycystic kidney disease (%)2.22.22.21.7<0.001
AIDS nephropathy (%)0.50.40.61.3<0.001
Comorbid condition (%)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease9.910.410.58.9<0.001
 Congestive heart failure33.334.035.434.6<0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease15.815.416.614.4<0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease10.510.210.610.0<0.001
 Atherosclerotic heart disease26.827.328.326.3<0.001
 Cancer7.17.67.57.2<0.001
Insurance status (%)<0.001
 Employer group health insurance23.623.324.124.3
 Medicaid21.920.320.822.7
 Medicare41.042.440.437.6
 No insurance6.65.96.67.3
 Others6.98.18.18.1
Prior employment status (%)<0.001
 Employed15.715.515.516.0
 Homemaker/student/other11.810.310.410.7
 Retire: age/preference39.342.741.540.4
 Retire: disability19.218.419.016.7
 Unemployed14.013.313.616.2
  • Quartile definition for residential segregation was as follows: 0–39.50, 39.50–48.95, 48.95–58.60, and 58.60–94.00.

  • a Calculated per the following: ANOVA for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and Kruskal-Wallis test for median comparison.