Table 1.

Summary of absolute risks of death from all causes, major cardiovascular events, and fatal infections associated with dialysis vascular access types

Reference Annual Event RiskaVascular Access ComparisonMeta-Analytical RR (95% CI)Heterogeneity (I2; P Value)Number of Additional Events per 1000 Patients Exposed per Year (95% CI)
All-cause mortality
 0.20 for fistula usersCatheter versus fistula1.53 (1.40–1.67)83.9%; <0.01106 (80–134) excess with catheter
 0.24 for graft usersCatheter versus graft1.38 (1.25–1.52)86.2%; <0.0191 (60–125) excess with catheter
 0.20 for fistula usersGraft versus fistula1.18 (1.09–1.27)82.1%; <0.0136 (18–54) excess with graft
Major cardiovascular events
 0.10 for fistula usersCatheter versus fistula1.38 (1.24–1.54)0%; 0.4738 (24–54) excess with catheter
 0.11 for graft usersCatheter versus graft1.26 (1.11–1.43)0%; 0.5728 (12–46) excess with catheter
 0.10 for fistula usersGraft versus fistula1.07 (0.95–1.21)0%; 0.527 (−5–21)b excess with graft
Fatal infections
 0.03 for fistula usersCatheter versus fistula2.12 (1.79–2.52)0%; 0.8228 (20–38) excess with catheter
 0.04 for graft usersCatheter versus graft1.49 (1.15–1.93)0%; 0.2317 (5–32) excess with catheter
 0.03 for fistula usersGraft versus fistula1.36 (1.17–1.58)0%; 0.789 (4–15) excess with graft
  • a Outcome measure includes all-cause mortality, fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events, and fatal infection events as defined in each study, with RRs obtained from the meta-analysis. Reference risks are from the United States Renal Data System.1

  • b The 95% CI includes negative numbers, indicating that the superiority of graft versus fistula for cardiovascular events is uncertain (the 95% CI ranges between 5 fewer events and 21 in excess with grafts).