Table 2.

Upper and lower extremity physical performance measures and risk of death

MeasurePerformanceDeaths/At Risk (n)Mortality Rate
(per 1000 person-years)Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2
Gait speed>0.8 m/s15/22225 (15–41)ReferenceReference
≤0.8 m/s19/10079 (50–123)3.24 (1.47–7.18)2.45 (1.09–5.54)
Per 0.1-m/s slower1.31 (1.13–1.52)1.26 (1.09–1.47)
TUAGFast (<12 s)19/24027 (17–43)ReferenceReference
Slow (≥12 s)26/12279 (54–116)2.08 (1.06–4.08)1.81 (0.92–3.56)
Per 1-s slower1.08 (1.03–1.14)1.08 (1.01–1.14)
6-min walk≥350 m13/22319 (11–33)ReferenceReference
<350 m18/8677 (49–122)3.61 (1.71–7.63)2.82 (1.17–6.92)
Per 50-m decrease1.22 (1.07–1.40)1.15 (0.98–1.36)
GripStronger grip32/29538 (27–54)ReferenceReference
Weak gripa17/8671 (44–114)1.50 (0.82–2.72)1.30 (0.71–2.37)
Per 5-kg decrease1.17 (1.02–1.33)1.07 (0.92–1.24)
  • Model 1 included age, sex, race, study site. Model 2 added smoking, BMI, diabetes, prevalent CAD, and eGFR (CKD-EPI equation per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2).

  • a Grip strength cut-offs defined by sex- and BMI-specific cut-offs from the Cardiovascular Health Study (34).