Table 2.

The association of first dialysis access placed with patient mortality from the time of HD initiation in the entire study population and subgroups by Cox proportional hazards model

VariableOutcome: Patient Mortality after ESRD (HD Initiation)
Access Type: GraftAccess Type: Catheter
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)PHazard Ratio (95% CI)P
Entire study population1.05 (1.00–1.11)0.061.77 (1.73–1.81)<0.001
Age categories, yr
 67–791.10 (1.02–1.17)0.0071.78 (1.73–1.84)<0.001
 80–890.98 (0.89–1.08)0.671.74 (1.67–1.81)<0.001
 ≥901.09 (0.74–1.60)0.671.78 (1.52–2.09)<0.001
Race
 White1.06 (1.00–1.13)0.061.75 (1.71–1.80)<0.001
 African American1.05 (0.94–1.17)0.371.84 (1.73–1.95)<0.001
 Native American1.29 (0.66–2.53)0.461.70 (1.27–2.29)0.004
 Asian1.30 (0.96–1.76)0.091.91 (1.64–2.23)<0.001
 Other1.25 (0.21–7.53)0.802.12 (0.57–7.9)0.26
Sex
 Woman1.02 (0.94–1.10)0.681.73 (1.67–1.80)<0.001
 Man1.09 (1.01–1.18)0.031.79 (1.74–1.85)<0.001
History of diabetes
 Yes1.07 (0.99–1.14)0.071.75 (1.69–1.80)<0.001
 No1.04 (0.95–1.13)0.401.79 (1.73–1.86)<0.001
History of malignancy
 Yes1.19 (1.01–1.39)0.031.88 (1.75–2.01)<0.001
 No1.04 (0.98–1.10)0.251.74 (1.70–1.79)<0.001
History of PVD
 Yes1.07 (0.95–1.20)0.261.64 (1.56–1.72)<0.001
 No1.05 (0.99–1.12)0.121.80 (1.76–1.85)<0.001
Duration of pre-ESRD nephrology care
 No care1.16 (0.96–1.41)0.121.71 (1.57–1.86)<0.001
 Less than 6 months1.08 (0.93–1.26)0.321.82 (1.71–1.94)<0.001
 6–12 months1.01 (0.92–1.12)0.821.79 (1.71–1.86)<0.001
 More than 12 months1.06 (0.98–1.16)0.151.77 (1.70–1.84)<0.001
  • Fistula group was used as reference. The results shown are derived from 20 separate proportional hazard models; each of the models was adjusted for the following covariates: age at ESRD onset, race, sex, BMI, comorbidity index, type of access first placed, primary cause of ESRD, and duration of pre-ESRD nephrology care. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.