Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants, by level of kidney function or proteinuria

CharacteristicProteinuria Measured by Dipstick (n=612,776)Proteinuria Measured by ACR (n=86,830)
None (n=560,326)Mild (n=43,729)Heavy (n=8,711)None (n=64,680)Mild (n=17,536)Heavy (n=4,614)
Mean age (yr) ± SD 51.7±15.854.0±18.355.6±18.456.9±13.960.3±14.960.0±15.4
Mean eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) ± SD 88.6±19.683.5±24.073.5±29.083.6±19.879.2±23.670.1±27.4
Female605142474440
Aboriginal234246
Diabetes91834526772
Hypertension294156526370
Cerebrovascular disease247356
PVD135246
CHF2593710
Cancer467566
COPD141820161820
Dementia123111
Metastatic solid tumor011001
Myocardial infarction246468
Mild liver disease112112
Paralysis011011
PUD233333
Rheumatic disease223112
Socioeconomic status
 Pensioner223135304138
 Low151414181616
 Low with subsidy356447
  • Unless otherwise noted, data are expressed as percentages. Totals do not always add to 100% because of rounding. Socioeconomic status was categorized as high (annual adjusted taxable family income ≥$39,250 CAD), low (annual adjusted taxable family income < $39,250 CAD), low with subsidy (receiving social assistance), and pensioners (age ≥65 years) according to government of Alberta health care insurance records. PVD, peripheral vascular disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PUD, peptic ulcer disease.