Table 1.

Summary of the main characteristics and findings of studies describing long-term kidney function loss in TDF-treated patients.

VariableUnited StatesAustraliaGermany
Study typeLongitudinal cohortRetrospective cohortRetrospective cohort
Treated patients (n)34429082
Controls (n)31461892
Age (yr)a
 Cases38 (34–43)46 (23 to 38)42.6±8.1
 Controls32 (32–45); NS45 (21 to 75); NS42.3±8.4; NS
CD4 count (cells/mm3)a
 Cases220 (77–433) 460 (425 to 496)501±267
 Controls210 (94–380); NS523 (499 to 547); NS571±266; NS
Average treatment duration (mo)b 
9.9 (5.5, 12.0) 
20.4 (18.0 to 21.6) 
9±7.3 months
Change in kidney function−13.3 ml/min (cases) versus −7.5 ml/min (controls); P=0.005−5.6 ml/min (cases) versus 1.3 ml/min (controls); P=0.00297±49 ml/min (cases) versus 107±39 ml/min (controls); P<0.05
Kidney function assessmentCockcroft-GaultCockcroft-Gault indexed to ideal body weightMeasured creatinine clearance
Reference353637
  • NS, not significant.

  • a Values for United States are median (first–third quartile); values for Australia are mean (95% confidence interval); values for Germany are mean ± SD.

  • b Values for United States are mean (minimum, maximum); values for Australia are mean (95% confidence interval); values for Germany are mean ± SD.