Table 1.

Characteristics of all RCTs with active vitamin D analogs that had proteinuria as outcome (qualitative analysis)

Authors (yr)Study Arms (n)Baseline ParametersUnderlying ConditionsFollow-UpMain Result
ACR (mg/g)PCR (g/g)eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)Diabetes Mellitus (%)ACE/ARB Use (%)
Agarwal et al.26 (2005)Paricalcitol (57)N/A24 (8)5968Diverse≤24 wkDipstick proteinuria decreased in 51% of patients in paricalcitol group and 25% of patients in placebo group (P=0.004)
Placebo (61)23 (7)5870
Alborzi et al.27 (2008)Paricalcitol 1 μg/d (8)72 (30–172)48 (9)50100Diverse1 moFrom baseline to last measurement, ACR increased in placebo group but decreased in both paricalcitol groups
Paricalcitol 2 μg/d (8)39 (18–82)47 (13)88100
Placebo (8)241 (57–1022)44 (12)75100
Fishbane et al.30 (2009)Paricalcitol 1 μg/d (31)2.6 (N/A)40 (24)6589Diverse6 moPCR placebo: +2.9%; paricalcitol: −17.6%, P=0.04
Placebo (30)2.8 (N/A)35 (18)5093
de Zeeuw et al.29 (2010)Paricalcitol 1 μg/d (93)894 (832)40 (15)100100Diabetic nephropathy24 wkACR from baseline to last evaluation was −3% in placebo group, −14% in 1 μg paricalcitol group, and −20% in 2 μg paricalcitol group (P=0.05)
Paricalcitol 2 μg/d (95)814 (761)42 (18)100100
Placebo (93)832 (717)39 (17)100100
De Boer et al.32 (2013)aParicalcitol 2 μg/d (11)593 (1460)39 (12)073Diverse8 wkACR at last evaluation was 15% lower after paricalcitol than after placebo treatment when comparing individual patients (P=0.31)
Placebo (11)257 (478)40 (12)091
Thadhani et al.33 (2012)bParicalcitol 2 μg/d (62)450 (156–1040)30 (24–36)5884Diverse48 wkAdjusted mean change in log-transformed ACR at week 48 was −0.11 [95% CI, −0.35 to 0.13] in paricalcitol group and 0.10 [95% CI, −0.14 to 0.33] in placebo group (P=0.23)
Placebo (59)278 (88–980)31 (23–39)5680
Liu et al.31 (2012)Calcitriol 0.5 μg 2×/wk (25)N/Ac83 (36)0100IgA nephropathy48 wk24 h proteinuria from baseline to last evaluation was +21% in control group and −19% in calcitriol group (P=0.03)
No treatment (25)78 (28)0100
Krairittichai et al.28 (2012)Calcitriol 0.5 μg 2×/wk (46)3.73 (2.20)38 (18)10061Diabetic nephropathy16 wkUrinary PCR decreased by 18.7% in calcitriol group and increased by 9.9% in control group (P<0.01)
No treatment (45)3.39 (2.10)37 (17)10053
  • ACR, protein to creatinine ratio (PCR), and eGFR data presented as mean (SD) or median (95% CI) depending on their distribution. N/A, not available.

  • a The original study had a crossover design. To avoid repeated inclusion, we used data from the first study period only.

  • b Data represent the subgroup of patients with albuminuria at baseline. Baseline data for the complete study population are available in the original publication.33

  • c No baseline PCR/ACR data were available. The 24-hour urinary protein excretion at baseline was 1.60 g/24 h in the calcitriol-treated group and 1.29 g/24 h in the control group.