Table 2.

Characteristics of patients who initiated dialysis (n=416,657) according to level of intensity of care received around the time of initiation

CharacteristicIntensity of Care (95% CI) (%)aTrend
P Value
Group 1 (Lowest)
(n=147,823)Group 2
(n=166,549)Group 3
(n=3763)Group 4
(n=82,238)Group 5 (Highest)
(n=16,284)
Men53.4 (53.2 to 53.7)48.6 (48.4 to 48.9)47.9 (46.4 to 49.5)52.2 (51.8 to 52.5)49.5 (48.8 to 50.3)<0.001
Race
 White74.2 (74.0 to 74.5)75.6 (75.4 to 75.8)73.7 (72.2 to 75.1)76.2 (75.9 to 76.4)73.9 (73.2 to 74.6)Reference
 Black19.5 (19.3 to 19.7)20.6 (20.4 to 20.8)22.6 (21.3 to 24.0)20.5 (20.3 to 20.8)22.6 (22.0 to 23.2)<0.001
 Other5.6 (5.5 to 5.8)3.3 (3.2 to 3.3)3.2 (2.7 to 3.8)2.7 (2.6 to 2.8)2.9 (2.7 to 3.2)<0.001
Age
 67–74 yr45.2 (45.0 to 45.5)42.8 (42.5 to 43.0)47.5 (45.9 to 49.1)39.4 (39.1 to 39.8)42.6 (41.9 to 43.4)Reference
 75–79 yr26.7 (26.4 to 26.9)26.7 (26.5 to 26.9)26.2 (24.8 to 27.6)27.5 (27.2 to 27.8)27.9 (27.2 to 28.5)<0.001
 80–84 yr18.3 (18.2 to 18.6)19.4 (19.2 to 19.6)16.4 (15.3 to 17.6)20.6 (20.3 to 20.9)19.2 (18.6 to 19.8)<0.001
 ≥85 yr9.7 (9.6 to 9.9)11.1 (11.0 to 11.3)9.9 (9.0 to 10.9)12.4 (12.2 to 12.7)10.4 (9.9 to 10.8)<0.001
Cause of ESRD
 Hypertension32.1 (31.9 to 32.4)32.4 (32.1 to 32.6)34.1 (32.6 to 32.6)29.1 (28.8 to 29.4)28.8 (28.1 to 29.5)Reference
 Nonresolving  tubular necrosis1.5 (1.4 to 1.5)1.2 (1.2 to 1.3)3.4 (2.8 to 4.0)4.5 (4.4 to 4.6)12.8 (12.3 to 13.3)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus40.5 (40.3 to 40.8)41.2 (40.9 to 41.4)40.0 (38.4 to 41.5)39.2 (38.8 to 39.5)34.6 (33.9 to 35.4)<0.001
 GN7.3 (7.2 to 7.5)6.5 (6.3 to 6.6)4.9 (4.3 to 5.7)6.2 (6.0 to 6.3)4.7 (4.4 to 5.0)<0.001
 Other13.3 (13.1 to 13.5)13.9 (13.7 to 14.0)12.2 (11.2 to 13.3)15.2 (15.0 to 15.5)12.5(12.0 to 13.0)<0.001
 Unknown5.3 (5.2 to 5.4)5.0 (4.9 to 5.1)5.5 (4.8 to 6.3)5.9 (5.7 to 6.0)6.6 (6.2 to 7.0)<0.001
Median eGFR (IQR) (ml/min per 1.73 m2)9.4 (7.1–12.6)8.9 (6.6–12.2)9.2 (6.8–12.6)9.8 (7.1–13.6)10.6 (7.7–14.7)<0.001
Comorbid conditions
 Coronary arterial disease59.2 (58.9 to 59.4)69.5 (69.3 to 69.7)75.9 (74.5 to 77.2)76.0 (75.7 to 76.3)77.9 (77.2 to 78.5)<0.001
 Peripheral arterial disease27.7 (27.5 to 28.0)33.9 (33.7 to 34.1)35.4 (33.9 to 37.0)38.1 (37.8 to 38.4)36.9 (36.1 to 37.6)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure62.6 (62.3 to 62.8)77.4 (77.2 to 77.6)87.6 (86.5 to 88.6)84.5 (84.3 to 84.8)86.6 (86.0 to 87.0)<0.001
 Hypertension90.0 (89.9 to 90.2)98.0 (97.9 to 98.1)97.8 (97.3 to 98.2)96.7 (96.6 to 96.8)95.6 (95.3 to 95.9)<0.001
 COPD and/or emphysema33.7 (33.5 to 33.9)41.9 (41.7 to 42.2)52.2 (50.6 to 53.8)49.0 (48.7 to 49.3)55.1 (54.3 to 55.8)<0.001
 Cirrhosis1.7 (1.6 to 1.8)2.1 (2.0 to 2.2)1.7 (1.4 to 2.2)3.4 (3.3 to 3.5)2.7 (2.5 to 3.0)<0.001
 Dementia5.5 (5.4 to 5.7)6.6 (6.5 to 6.7)8.7 (7.9 to 9.7)8.9 (8.7 to 9.1)11.6 (11.1 to 12.1)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus60.8 (60.5 to 61.0)66.2 (66.0 to 66.5)66.6 (65.1 to 68.1)67.0 (66.7 to 67.4)65.3 (64.5 to 66.0)<0.001
 Cancer28.4 (28.1 to 28.6)31.8 (31.6 to 32.0)29.4 (28.0 to 31.0)33.9 (33.6 to 34.2)32.2 (31.5 to 32.9)<0.001
 Late nephrology careb42.3 (42.0 to 42.5)41.6 (41.3 to 41.8)47.7 (46.1 to 49.3)54.9 (54.5 to 55.3)60.7 (60.0 to 61.5)<0.001
Intensive procedure
 Mechanical ventilationNANA80.0 (78.7 to 81.2)NA78.9 (78.3 to 79.5)NA
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitationNANA10.9 (10.0 to 12.0)NA6.1 (5.8 to 6.5)NA
 Feeding tube placementNANA15.8 (14.7 to 17.0)NA28.2 (27.5 to 28.9)NA
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NA, not applicable.

  • a Group 1: outpatient; group 2: <2 weeks hospitalized, no intensive procedure; group 3: <2 weeks hospitalized, at least one intensive procedure; group 4: ≥2 weeks hospitalized, no intensive procedure; Group 5: ≥2 weeks hospitalized, at least one intensive procedure.

  • b ≤3 months predialysis nephrology care.