Table 4.

Independent association between weekly physical activity, calibrated energy intake, and BMI and risk of incident kidney stones in multivariate-adjusted analyses

VariableaHRa (95% CI)P Value
Physical activity <0.001
InactiveReference
 0.1–4.9 METs/wk0.84 (0.74 to 0.97)
 5–9.9 METs/wk0.78 (0.68 to 0.90)
 10–19.9 METs/wk0.69 (0.60 to 0.79)
 20–29.9 METs/wk0.70 (0.59 to 0.83)
 ≥30 METs/wk0.69 (0.58 to 0.83)
Calibrated energy intake <0.001
 <1800 kcal/d1.03 (0.74 to 1.43)
 1800–1999 kcal/dReference
 2000–2199 kcal/d1.04 (0.90 to 1.20)
 2200–2499 kcal/d1.26 (1.03 to 1.55)
 ≥2500 kcal/d1.42 (1.02 to 1.98)
BMI 0.01
 <18.5 kg/m2 (underweight)0.79 (0.47 to 1.34)
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (normal weight)Reference
 25–29.9 kg/m2 (overweight)1.21 (1.07 to 1.37)
 30–34.9 kg/m2 (moderately obese)1.36 (1.13 to 1.63)
 ≥35 kg/m2 (severely obese)1.31 (1.02 to 1.68)
  • a Adjusted for age (continuous); race (category); history of diabetes; use of calcium supplement; hormone replacement therapy (category); income (dichotomized); region (category); and quintile intake of water, sodium, animal protein, and dietary calcium.