Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study group according to tertile of serum T50

CharacteristicOverall (n=184)Low (n=61)Intermediate (n=62)High (n=61)P for Trenda
Serum T50 (min)329±95227±44326±26434±58
Clinical and hemodynamic parameters
 Age (yr)69±1171±1069±1268±120.48
 Sex (% men)736173850.009
 Cardiovascular comorbidity (%)465744370.05
 History of diabetes (%)242824210.36
 Alcohol intake (units/wk)7.7±9.37.9±9.37.6±9.17.6±9.40.98
 Smoking (pack/yr)17.1±27.118.0±27.214.1±21.019.2±32.10.55
 Body mass index (kg/m2)28.4 (25.5–33.6)27.8 (24.9–29.7)29.7 (26.3–34.1)28.4 (25.7–33.8)0.15
 Systolic BP (mmHg)151±21153±21150±19152±240.75
 Diastolic BP (mmHg)81±1179±1082±1183±120.12
 MAP (mmHg)105±13105±12104±11102±150.33
 Pulse pressure (mmHg)70±1974±2069±2168±160.07
 Heart rate (bpm)71±1269±1272±1372±120.51
 APWV (m/s)12.9±2.613.7±2.713.1±2.612.0±2.20.002
Laboratory measurements
 Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.7±1.711.8±1.713.0±1.613.3±1.5<0.001
 eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)b32.9±10.830.1±10.332.8±10.735.7±10.90.02
 Proteinuria (mg/mmol)27 (13–68)23 (14–83)23 (12–76)29 (13–57)0.70
 Albumin (g/L)43±341±343±344±30.05
 Total calcium (mmol/L)2.34±0.132.37±0.132.36±0.122.31±0.120.07
 Adjusted calcium (mmol/L)c2.28±0.122.27±0.112.31±0.132.29±0.110.19
 Ionized calcium (mmol/L)1.25±0.111.27±0.101.24±0.101.23±0.110.04
 Phosphate (mmol/L)1.08±0.201.17±0.181.07±0.220.99±0.15<0.001
 Magnesium (mmol/L)0.95±0.110.95±0.100.95±0.090.94±0.120.89
 Pyrophosphate (μmol/L)3.12±0.633.01±0.653.04±0.593.33±0.570.02
 Parathyroid hormone (ng/L)75 (50–114)82 (49–125)78 (50–111)68 (50–110)0.11
 CTx (μg/L)0.44 (0.33–0.57)0.51 (0.40–0.65)0.41 (0.32–0.57)0.42 (0.28–0.52)0.004
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.36±0.964.20±0.894.26±1.004.29±0.950.14
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.46±0.441.48±0.451.51±0.411.40±0.470.36
Inflammatory markers
 hsCRP (mg/L)2.27 (0.94–5.80)2.75 (1.01–6.29)2.01 (0.93–6.08)1.98 (0.90–3.98)0.04
 TNF-α (pg/ml)16.8 (12.7–21.2)17.5 (13.5–22.9)16.6 (13.2–22.4)16.4 (11.6–18.3)0.02
Fet-A components
 Total Fet-A (mg/L)208±63175±49220±63229±63<0.001
 Mono Fet-A (mg/L)176±63128±39191±57209±60<0.001
 CPP Fet-A (mg/L)32±2447±2829±1920±13<0.001
Medication use
 ACEi/ARB (%)676768660.97
 Calcium channel blocker (%)475143470.66
 Diuretic (%)544455620.10
β-Blocker (%)333133350.93
 Statin (%)596157610.86
 Calcium supplementation (%)815530.02
 Vitamin D supplementation (%)1218770.06
  • Data are mean±SD or median (25th to 75th percentile). ACEi/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker.

  • a P for trend was calculated by one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test for continuous variables and chi-squared test for categorical variables.

  • b eGFR was calculated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation.

  • c Adjusted for plasma albumin concentration according to the following equation: measured calcium (mmol/L)+0.02 (40−albumin [g/L]).