Table 2.

Univariate odds of incident kidney stone formation in postmenopausal women in the WHI Observational Study

VariableHR (95% CI)P Value
BMI (kg/m2)<0.001
 <18.5 kg/m2 (underweight)0.78 (0.48 to 1.29)
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (normal weight)Reference
 25–29.9 kg/m2 (overweight)1.37 (1.24 to 1.52)
 30–34.9 kg/m2 (moderately obese)1.84 (1.64 to 2.07)
 ≥35 kg/m2 (severely obese)2.23 (1.96 to 2.54)
Any physical activity0.65 (0.59 to 0.72)<0.001
Physical activity <0.001
 InactiveReference
 0.1–4.9 METs/wk0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)
 5–9.9 METs/wk0.72 (0.63 to 0.82)
 10–19.9 METs/wk0.59 (0.52 to 0.67)
 20–29.9 METs/wk0.54 (0.46 to 0.63)
 ≥30 METs/wk0.55 (0.46 to 0.64)
Raw energy intake<0.001
 <1800 kcal/d1.05 (0.91 to 1.22)
 1800–1999 kcal/dReference
 2000–2199 kcal/d1.16 (0.94 to 1.43)
 2200–2499 kcal/d1.14 (0.92 to 1.41)
 ≥2500 kcal/d1.59 (1.31 to 1.93)
Calibrated energy intake (kcalories per day)<0.001
 <1800 kcal/d1.20 (0.91 to 1.58)
 1800–1999 kcal/dReference
 2000–2199 kcal/d0.98 (0.87 to 1.10)
 2200–2499 kcal/d1.38 (1.23 to 1.55)
 ≥2500 kcal/d1.79 (1.49 to 2.14)