Table 2.

Factors associated with predialysis systolic BPV in 11,291 incident hemodialysis patients

CharacteristicsCoefficient (95% CI)aP Value
Demographics
 Age (per SD)−0.42 (−1.11 to 0.27)0.23
 Sex, women versus men5.87 (4.64 to 7.10)<0.001
 Black versus white4.86 (3.43 to 6.30)<0.001
 Hispanic versus non-Hispanic−0.14 (−2.93 to 2.65)0.92
Clinical
 Diabetes2.59 (0.81 to 4.38)0.004
 CVD1.52 (0.09 to 2.95)0.04
 CHF−0.95 (−2.75 to 0.86)0.31
 Comorbidity index
  0–3Reference
  4–62.82 (0.90 to 4.73)0.004
  7–92.06 (−0.49 to 4.61)0.11
  ≥102.48 (−0.55 to 5.51)0.11
 BMIb<18.5 kg/m2 (per SD)−33.00 (−44.94 to −21.07)<0.001
 BMIb>18.5 to ≤40 kg/m2 (per SD)0.73 (−0.08 to 1.54)0.08
 BMIb>40 kg/m2 (per SD)5.53 (3.01 to 7.95)<0.001
ESRD related
 Cause of ESRD
  DiabetesReference
  Hypertension2.98 (1.16 to 4.80)0.001
  GN−5.26 (−7.69 to −2.82)<0.001
  Other−3.82 (−5.98 to −1.67)<0.001
 Average Kt/V (per SD)0.23 (−0.42 to 0.88)0.49
 Relative fluid removal per session (per SD)c−0.97 (−1.61 to −0.34)0.003
Laboratory parameters
 Serum albumin (per SD)−3.31 (−3.91 to −2.71)<0.001
 Calcium phosphate product (per SD)0.70 (0.11 to 1.30)0.02
 Hemoglobin (<10 g/dl, per SD)3.97 (0.35 to 7.60)0.03
 Hemoglobin (>10 g/dl, per SD)−1.28 (−1.93 to −0.63)<0.001
 Ferritin (per SD)0.26 (−0.33 to 0.85)0.38
Antihypertensive medications
 Any β-blocker regimen (without RAS)Reference
 Any RAS regimen (without β-blocker)1.84 (0.15 to 3.52)0.03
β-Blocker + RAS combination5.20 (3.83 to 6.56)<0.001
 Other medications and combinations−2.04 (−3.77 to −0.31)0.02
  • a Coefficient for multivariable linear mixed effects models with a random intercept for the clinic to account for outcome clustering by providers. Value of coefficient represents change in BPV metric×10−3 per 1 unit change in the factors. Positive numbers indicate higher BPV per 1 unit change in factors, and negative numbers indicate lower BPV per 1 unit change in factors.

  • b BMI is modeled as a linear spline with knots at 18.5 and 40 kg/m2.

  • c Relative fluid removal per dialysis session=(predialysis weight−postdialysis weight)/postdialysis weight.