Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of TRIBE-AKI participants by survival status at 3 years of follow-up

CharacteristicOverall (N=1199)Nonsurvivors (n=139)Survivors (n=1060)P Value
Demographics
 Age at the time of surgery (yr) (SD)71.4 (10.1)74 (9.5)71 (10.1)0.001
 Men817 (68)95 (68)722 (68)0.96
 White race1122 (94)130 (94)992 (94)0.98
Medical history (time of surgery)
 Diabetes475 (40)65 (47)410 (39)0.70
 Hypertension946 (79)108 (78)838 (79)0.71
 Congestive heart failure307 (26)56 (40)251 (24)<0.001
 Left ventricular ejection fraction <40%119 (10)19 (14)100 (9)0.12
 Previous myocardial infarction306 (26)38 (29)268 (26)0.46
 eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) (SD)68 (19.3)62 (21.3)68 (18.9)0.001
  <60 (μmol/L per 1.73 m2)411 (34)62 (44)349 (32)0.001
  >60788 (66)77 (55)711 (67)0.001
  30–60375 (31)52 (37)323 (30)
  <3036 (3)10 (7)26 (2)
 SCr (mg/dl)a1.0 (0.9, 1.2)1.1 (0.9, 1.3)1.0 (0.9, 1.2)0.001
 Microalbuminuriab392 (33)62 (48)330 (32)<0.001
 Urine albumin to creatinine ratio<0.001
  ≤10.0401 (35)25 (19)376 (37)
  10.0–30347 (30)42 (33)305 (30)
  30–300323 (28)46 (36)277 (27)
  ≥30069 (6)16 (12)53 (5)
Surgical characteristics
 Elective surgery953 (79)112 (81)841 (79)0.73
 Surgery0.004
  CABG or valve948 (79)97 (70)851 (80)
  CABG plus valve250 (21)42 (30)208 (20)
 Off-pump155 (13)21 (15)134 (13)0.38
 Reoperation20 (2)2 (2)18 (2)0.83
 Perfusion time (min) (SD)113.4 (59.5)124.1 (64.7)112 (58.7)0.03
 Cross-clamp time (min) (SD)77.4 (44.4)86.8 (49.1)76.1 (43.6)0.01
 Diseased coronary vessels (n)0.86
  None312 (26)38 (27)274 (26)
  1156 (13)17 (12)139 (13)
  2224 (19)23 (17)201 (19)
  3497 (42)61 (44)436 (42)
 Left main disease ≥50%423 (36)51 (38)372 (36)0.69
Postoperative complications
 Clinical AKIc<0.001
  ΔSCr (%)
   ≥50 (or ≥0.3 mg/dl)359 (30)52 (37)307 (29)
   ≥10030 (3)9 (6)21 (2)
   ≥20018 (2)7 (5)11 (1)
  Acute dialysis11 (1)5 (4)6 (1)
  Oliguria in first dayd15 (1)2 (1)13 (1)0.50
  Peak ΔSCre (SD)0.2 (0.4)0.3 (0.5)0.2 (0.4)<0.001
 Nonrenal complications (n)f<0.001
  0730 (61)67 (48)663 (63)
  1–2363 (30)46 (33)317 (30)
  >2106 (9)26 (19)80 (8)
 Ventilator >48 h45 (4)14 (10)31 (3)0.001
 Length of stay (d) 
  ICU2 (1, 3)3 (1, 5)2 (1, 3)<0.001
  Hospital6 (5, 8)8 (6, 13)6 (5, 8)<0.001
  • Data are presented as the mean (SD), n (%), or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise specified. eGFR, estimated GFR; SCr, serum creatinine.

  • a To convert serum creatinine values to millimoles per liter, multiply by 88.4.

  • b Microalbuminuria is defined as a urine albumin to creatinine ratio>30 μg/mg.

  • c Clinical AKI is defined as a change in serum creatinine of ≥50% or ≥0.3 mg/dl from before surgery to the peak postoperative value.

  • d Oliguria is defined as a patient who had <125 ml or <500 ml urine output in 6 or 24 hours, respectively.

  • e Peak indicates the highest biomarker value through the third postoperative day.

  • f Nonrenal complications are defined as reoperation, infection, neurologic, pulmonary, vascular, and other.