Table 2.

Levels of mRNA in urinary cells

Type of mRNAACR (copies/μg total RNA, median [IQR]; n=26)AMR (copies/μg total RNA, median [IQR]; n=26)ATI (copies/μg total RNA, median [IQR]; n=32)P Value (Kruskal–Wallis Test)P Value (Dunn’s Test)
ACR Versus AMRACR Versus ATIAMR Versus ATI
CD3ε27,350 (15,525–96,400)2690 (875–8540)382 (108–1415)<0.001<0.05<0.05<0.05
Granzyme B17,400 (4105–33,950)2240 (708–5610)444 (190–2105)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
Perforin12,950 (4745–48,125)1920 (407–6443)21 (84–1313)<0.001<0.05<0.05<0.05
FoxP3541 (371–1080)119 (13–288)12.5 (12.5–12.5)<0.001<0.05<0.05<0.05
OX404885 (1007–11,450)422 (127–2033)235 (12.5–385)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
CD10532,550 (13,750–55,750)6890 (1785–16,450)2950 (663–8398)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
CD146983 (630–2923)573 (126–1323)316 (56–750)<0.01>0.05<0.05>0.05
von Willebrand factor1245 (523–2680)718 (121–1960)316 (88–1096)<0.01>0.05<0.05>0.05
IgJ1210 (571–4525)523 (149–3660)72 (12.5–192)<0.001>0.05<0.05<0.05
PSMB10214,500 (66,525–484,500)28,900 (9345–58,975)28,550 (6253–44,150)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
TRIB1227,000 (145,250–452,750)62,450 (18,900–176,500)86,200 (18,750–242,500)<0.01<0.05<0.05>0.05
TLR425,200 (5363–67,525)6800 (975–19,725)4140 (444–13,775)<0.01<0.05<0.05>0.05
CD14290,500 (117,025–699,250)21,500 (9548–88,500)55,950 (3083–182,250)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
Complement factor 316,700 (6028–43,550)6445 (1233–13,950)2120 (745–8318)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
Complement factor 5806 (374–1733)260 (46–535)97 (12.5–390)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
Properdin68,500 (19,600–208,500)8960 (3165–47,425)21,450 (1858–59,400)<0.01<0.05<0.05>0.05
Complement factor B31,900 (14,200–58,925)27,150 (14,150–51,475)15,250 (6085–26,575)0.01>0.05<0.05>0.05
CD55571,000 (321,500–1,403,000)175,500 (63,075–530,000)173,500 (44,475–891,750)<0.01<0.05<0.05>0.05
CD46749,500 (328,000–1,438,000)173,500 (83,100–411,750)272,000 (60,075–526,500)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
Vimentin1,430,000 (556,000–3,810,000)390,000 (91,100–800,500)295,500 (53,350–844,250)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
NKCC23130 (967–7133)1031 (214–3480)1110 (191–2863)<0.01<0.05<0.05>0.05
E-cadherin19,200 (7248–41,700)7160 (3443–15,675)5310 (1246–14,675)<0.01<0.05<0.05>0.05
IL-61307 (576–10,433)328 (47–2598)151 (12.5–1935)<0.01<0.05<0.05>0.05
CXCL137920 (3428–50,600)437 (12.5–3865)78 (12.5–459)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
CD203360 (644–6805)449 (133–2088)89 (12.5–403)<0.001<0.05<0.05<0.05
TGFβ1117,000 (44,350–207,250)27,950 (5410–68,750)18,050 (2978–46,675)<0.001<0.05<0.05>0.05
18S rRNA1.12×1010 (6.68×109–3.62×1010)4.15×109 (1.97×109–9.45×109)4.28×109 (1.40×109–1.19×1010)<0.01<0.05<0.05>0.05
  • The 26 mRNAs and 18S rRNA were quantified using gene-specific primers and probes by real-time PCR assay. Median absolute copy numbers per microgram of total RNA (IQR; interquartile range) of each mRNA measure and 18S rRNA are shown. P values were calculated using Kruskal–Wallis test of no differences among the ACR, AMR, and ATI biopsy groups. After Kruskal–Wallis test, pairwise comparisons among the three groups were done using the Dunn’s test. P values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The rationale for the mRNAs selected for inclusion in the mRNA panel is provided in the Supplemental Appendix.