Table 1.

Characteristics of the study population (n=278)

CharacteristicValue
Men, n (%)156 (56.1)
Age (yr)60±10
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)115 (41.4)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Nonsmoker197 (70.9)
 Ex-smoker52 (18.7)
 Current smoker29 (10.4)
Body mass index (kg/m2)25.7±4.3
Background atherosclerotic vascular complications, n (%)54 (19.5)
Background coronary artery disease, n (%)26 (9.4)
Background heart failure, n (%)8 (2.9)
Background ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular event, n (%)26 (9.4)
Systolic BP (mmHg)128±19
Diastolic BP (mmHg)77±11
Serum urea (mg/dl)252±134
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)2.52±1.39
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)33.6±17.8
CKD stages, n (%)
 3a61 (21.9)
 3b77 (27.7)
 492 (33.1)
 548 (17.3)
Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.0±2.1
Serum albumin (g/dl)4.18±0.35
Serum calcium (mg/dl)9.40±0.40
Serum phosphate (mg/dl) 3.78±0.77
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)105±36
Fasting total cholesterol (mg/dl)180±40
Fasting triglyceride (mg/dl)135±88
Total antihypertensive agents (n)2.58±1.25
Use of calcium-channel blockers, n (%)183 (65.8)
Use of β-blockers, n (%)142 (51.1)
Use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers, n (%)223 (80.3)
Use of statins, n (%)119 (42.8)
Use of aspirin, n (%)53 (19.1)
Use of erythropoietin-stimulating agent, n (%)10 (3.6)
  • Continuous data are expressed as mean±SD and categorical data as number (percentage).