Table 4.

Multiple logistic regression analysis of progressors in various cardiac structural and functional parameters in relation to baseline CKD stages

VariableOdds Ratio (95% CI), P Value
Stage 3a (n=61)Stage 3b (n=77)Stages 4 and 5 (n=140)
Progressor of LVMi
 Adjusted for age and sexReference0.93 (0.46 to 1.87), P=0.82.50 (1.32 to 4.74), P=0.01
 Plus baseline LVMiReference0.91 (0.45 to 1.85), P=0.82.71 (1.41 to 5.23), P=0.003
 Adjusted modelReference0.94 (0.45 to 1.94), P=0.93.24 (1.50 to 6.98), P=0.003
 Fully adjusted modelReference0.83 (0.39 to 1.75), P=0.62.78 (1.25 to 6.19), P=0.01
Progressor of LVVi
 Adjusted for age and sexReference1.66 (0.83 to 3.34), P=0.22.67 (1.40 to 5.06), P=0.003
 Plus baseline LVMi and LVViReference1.62 (0.80 to 3.28), P=0.22.77 (1.43 to 5.38), P=0.003
 Adjusted model+baseline LVViReference1.59 (0.76 to 3.33), P=0.22.62 (1.21 to 5.65), P=0.02
 Fully adjusted model+baseline LVViReference1.63 (0.77 to 3.47), P=0.22.70 (1.22 to 5.99), P=0.02
Progressor of LAVi
 Adjusted for age and sexReference2.23 (1.10 to 4.54), P=0.033.28 (1.71 to 6.34), P<0.001
 Plus baseline LVMi and LAViReference2.23 (1.09 to 4.55), P=0.033.21 (1.64 to 6.28), P=0.001
 Adjusted model+baseline LAViReference1.99 (0.95 to 4.17), P=0.072.61 (1.22 to 5.63), P=0.01
 Fully adjusted model+baseline LAViReference2.12 (0.99 to 4.56), P=0.052.50 (1.13 to 5.54), P=0.02
Progressor of Sm
 Adjusted for age and sexReference0.88 (0.44 to 1.77), P=0.70.62 (0.33 to 1.16), P=0.1
 Plus baseline LVMi+SmReference0.90 (0.44 to 1.83), P=0.80.58 (0.30 to 1.12), P=0.1
 Adjusted model+baseline SmReference0.87 (0.41 to 1.82), P=0.70.59 (0.27 to 1.26), P=0.2
 Fully adjusted model+baseline SmReference0.81 (0.38 to 1.73), P=0.60.57 (0.26 to 1.26), P=0.2
Progressor of ejection fraction
 Adjusted for age and sexReference1.47 (0.74 to 2.91), P=0.31.28 (0.69 to 2.39), P=0.4
 Plus baseline LVMi+ejection fractionReference1.24 (0.56 to 2.76), P=0.61.59 (0.75 to 3.37), P=0.2
 Adjusted model+baseline ejection fractionReference1.20 (0.53 to 2.73), P=0.71.42 (0.60 to 3.32), P=0.4
 Fully adjusted model+baseline ejection fractionReference1.12 (0.48 to 2.59), P=0.81.38 (0.57 to 3.38), P=0.5
Progressor of mwFS
 Adjusted for age and sexReference0.69 (0.35 to 1.37), P=0.30.85 (0.46 to 1.58), P=0.6
 Plus baseline LVMi+mwFSReference0.73 (0.35 to 1.54), P=0.40.76 (0.38 to 1.52), P=0.4
 Adjusted model+baseline mwFSReference0.81 (0.38 to 1.77), P=0.60.98 (0.44 to 2.17), P=1.0
 Fully adjusted model+baseline mwFSReference0.79 (0.36 to 1.74), P=0.60.90 (0.40 to 2.07), P=0.8
Progressor in diastolic dysfunction gradea
 Adjusted for age and sexReference2.37(0.98 to 5.75), P=0.062.71(1.19 to 6.18), P=0.02
 Plus baseline LVMi+diastolic function gradeReference2.60 (1.03 to 6.53), P=0.043.14 (1.31 to 7.53), P=0.01
 Adjusted model+baseline diastolic function gradeReference2.48 (0.96 to 6.39),. P=0.063.34 (1.26 to 8.91), P=0.02
 Fully adjusted model+baseline diastolic function gradeReference2.35 (0.87 to 6.37), P=0.092.84 (1.02 to 7.89), P=0.05
  • “Progressor” was defined as those in the upper 50th percentile for changes in LVMi, LVVi, or LAVi over 1 year and those with changes over 1 year in the lower 50th percentile for Sm and ejection fraction. Adjusted model: adjusted for known factors associated with LV abnormalities, including age, sex, diabetes, background coronary artery disease, baseline systolic BP, hemoglobin, serum albumin, LDL cholesterol, baseline LVMi, and change in systolic BP over 1 year. Fully adjusted model: adjusted for all factors above plus medications, including use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers, β-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, and diuretics. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; LVMi, LV volume index; LVV, LV volume index; mwFS, midwall fractional shortening.

  • a “Progressor” in diastolic dysfunction grade was defined as deterioration in diastolic function over 1 year by 1 or more grades according to the diastolic dysfunction grading by the American Society of Echocardiography using a combination of echocardiographic parameters, including LAVi, average of septal and lateral Em, and E/Em ratio. Patients who already had the most severe form of diastolic dysfunction (grade III) at baseline were not considered in the diastolic dysfunction progression analysis.