Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants by race

VariablesCaucasian ParticipantsAfrican-American ParticipantsP Value
N8348 (78.8%)2240 (21.2%)
Baseline variables
 Age, yr63.1 (5.6)61.7 (5.7)<0.001
 Women, %53.264.5<0.001
 Income level, %
  <$12,000/yr5.031.8<0.001
  $12,000–$24,999/yr19.127.9
  $25,000–$49,999/yr38.424.5
  ≥$50,000/yr37.515.9
 Health insurance, %92.761.5<0.001
 Medicaid insurance, %5.312.0<0.001
 Seeks medical care in an emergency department, %14.133.9<0.001
 Education level, %
  Less than high school14.133.9<0.001
  Some college45.829.6
  Advanced degree40.136.5
 Body mass index, kg/m228.3 (5.2)30.6 (6.3)<0.001
 Diabetes, %13.826.3<0.001
 Hypertension, %41.766.4<0.001
 Prior cardiovascular event, %9.16.3<0.001
 Uric acid, mg/dl5.6 (1.4)5.9 (1.6)<0.001
 eGFR at visit 4, ml/min per 1.73 m284.7 (14.2)92.3 (19.7)<0.001
 Urine ACR, mg/g (median [IQR])3.9 [2.0–7.7]2.7 [0.9–8.5]<0.001
 Moderately increased albuminuria, %5.410.2<0.001
 Severely increased albuminuria, %1.23.2<0.001
 Number of APOL1 high-risk alleles, %<0.001
  041.6
  146.1
  212.3
Follow-up variables
 Hospitalizations (median [IQR])1 [0–3]1 [0–3]0.50
 Follow-up time on ACE inhibitor/ARB, %1.5 (5.6)2.0 (7.0)<0.001
 Death, %20.5%23.6%<0.001
  • Values reflect mean (SD) unless otherwise noted. ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; IQR, interquartile range; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.