Table 1.

Maternal characteristics of children with and without CKD in WA, 1987–2008

Maternal CharacteristicsCases (n=1994; %)Controls (n=20,032; %)P Value
Age (yr)0.001
 <1866 (3.3)723 (3.6)
 18–24588 (29.5)6272 (31.3)
 25–29549 (27.5)5786 (28.9)
 30–34488 (24.5)4661 (23.3)
 35+303 (15.2)2581 (12.9)
 Missing09 (0.04)
Race0.1
 White1524 (76.4)14,798 (73.9)
 Black76 (3.8)842 (4.2)
 Asian/Pacific Islander116 (5.8)1392 (7.0)
 Native American47 (2.4)451 (2.3)
 Missing231 (11.6)2549 (12.7)
Education0.9
 Below high school279 (14.0)2675 (13.4)
 High school graduate430 (21.6)4251 (21.2)
 Some college782 (39.2)7485 (37.4)
 Missing503 (25.2)5621 (28.1)
Residence0.5
 Urban1407 (70.6)13,912 (69.5)
 Rural427 (21.4)4394 (21.9)
 Missing160 (8.0)1726 (8.6)
Smoking status0.1
 Yes256 (12.8)2877 (14.4)
 No1637 (82.1)16,274 (81.2)
 Missing101 (5.1)881 (4.4)
Previous pregnancies1.0
 0608 (30.5)6196 (30.9)
 1524 (26.3)5462 (27.3)
 2408 (20.5)3560 (17.8)
 3+392 (19.7)4248 (21.2)
 Missing62 (3.1)566 (2.8)
Prenatal care<0.001
 Inadequate145 (7.3)1598 (8.0)
 Intermediate222 (11.1)2744 (13.7)
 Adequate527 (26.4)5725 (28.6)
 Intensive339 (17.0)2494 (12.5)
 Missing761 (38.2)7741 (37.3)
Chronic HTN0.52
 No1833 (91.9)18,437 (92.0)
 Yes27 (1.4)238 (1.2)
 Missing134 (6.7)1357 (6.8)
Gestational HTN0.002
 No1733 (86.9)17,719 (88.5)
 Yes127 (6.4)956 (4.8)
 Missing134 (6.7)1357 (6.8)
Maternal DM<0.001
 No1761 (88.3)17,981 (89.8)
 PDM16 (0.8)83 (0.4)
 GDM84 (4.2)613 (3.1)
 Missing133 (6.7)1355 (6.8)
Maternal BMI (kg/m2)<0.001
 <18.533 (1.7)451 (2.3)
 18.5–24.9556 (27.9)5680 (28.4)
 25–29.9278 (13.9)2390 (11.9)
 ≥30242 (12.1)1951 (9.7)
 Missing85 (44.4)9560 (47.7)
  • CKD cases were defined using hospital discharge ICD-9 codes for renal dysplasia/aplasia (753.0 and 753.15) and obstructive uropathy (599.6 and 753.2).