Table 6.

Association of birth weight and maternal risk factors (maternal DM [PDM and GDM] and overweight/obesity) with development of renal dysplasia and aplasia

Risk FactorNCrude OR95% CI
Low birth weighta (400–2499 g)784.513.47 to 5.85
High birth weighta (>4000 g)380.930.66 to 1.32
Maternal PDMb117.523.97 to 14.24
Maternal GDMb161.480.89 to 2.46
Maternal overweightc441.020.71 to 1.45
Maternal obesityc461.300.91 to 1.85
  • No maternal confounders remained in the analysis after stepwise regression.

  • a Exposure reference group is offspring with normal birth weight (2500–3999 g).

  • b Exposure reference group is mothers without DM.

  • c Exposure reference group is mothers with normal BMI.