Table 2.

Retained articles and their main characteristics

First Author, Year, and ReferenceCell/Organ SystemToxinConcentration (mg/L)/DoseAlbumin/Type Model
(1) In vitro, albumin: normal
 Dou, 200426EndotheliumIS25–25040 g/L
 Odamaki, 200452HepatocytesIS50–10040 g/L
 Faure, 200628EndotheliumIS25640 g/L
 Yamamoto, 200651Smooth muscle cellsIS53–10640 g/L
 Dou, 200727EndotheliumIS125–25040 g/L
 Schepers, 200731LeukocytesPCS121.0Whole blood
 Itoh, 201229EndotheliumIS29.9–57.240 g/L
 Chitalia, 201346Smooth muscle cellsIS2540 g/L
 Koppe, 201344Adipocytes, myotubesPCS4035 g/L
(2) In vitro, albumin: low, absent, or unspecified
 Tsujimoto, 201032Liver microsomesIS6.36Absent
 Lekawanvijit, 201035Cardiac fibroblasts/myocytesIS0.02–63.65 g/L BSA/absent
 Yu, 201133EndotheliumIS1.25–125Unspecified
 Sun, 201334Proximal tubular cellsIS1; 5Absent
PCS1; 5
 Sun, 201236Proximal tubular cellsIS1–50Absent
 Sun, 201239Proximal tubular cellsIS1; 5Unspecified
PCS1; 5
 Tsujimoto, 201248Intestinal cells (hepatic no effect)IS4.240.8 g/L (10% FBS)
(3) Animala
 Adijang, 200840Aorta, kidneyIS23.1/200 mg/kg (30 wk) p.o.DH rat
 Ito, 201030bEndothelium/leukocyte interactionIS15.7/200 mg/kg q.d. (10 d) p.o.Nx mouse
 Adijang, 201041AortaIS15–20/200 mg/kg (32 wk) p.o.DN, DH rat
 Bolati, 201138b,cTubular cellsIS9.4–18.9/200 mg/kg (32 wk) p.o.DH rat
 Sun, 201236Tubular cellsISUnspecified/100 mg/kg q.d. (4 wk) i.p.1/2 Nx mouse
 Watanabe, 201345bRenal tubular cellsPCS32.6/50 mg/kg q.d. (4 wk) i.p.5/6 Nx rat
 Sun, 201239Proximal tubular cellsIS8.51/2 Nx mouse
100 mg/kg q.d. (4 wk) i.p.
 Shimizu, 201237b,cProximal tubular cellsIS9.4–18.9/200 mg/kg (32 wk) p.o.DN, DH rat
 Shimizu, 201342bKidney (cortex)IS9.4/200 mg/kg q.d. (32 wk) p.o.DN rat
 Shimizu, 201343bTubular cellsIS9.4/200 mg/kg (32 wk) p.o.DN rat
 Koppe, 201344Adipocytes, myocytes, various organsPCS51/10 mg/kg b.i.d. (4 wk) i.p.Normal RF mouse
 Shimizu, 201347b,cTubular cellsIS9.4–18.9/200 mg/kg (32 wk) p.o.DN, DH rat
 Yisireyili, 201349Cardiac tissueIS18.9/200 mg/kg q.d. (32 wk) p.o.DN, DH rat
 Bolati, 201350bTubular cellsIS9.4/200 mg/kg q.d. (32 wk) p.o.DN, DH, rat
  • IS, indoxyl sulfate; PCS, p-cresyl sulfate; BSA, bovine serum albumin; FBS, fetal bovine serum; wk, weeks; p.o., per os; q.d., once a day; i.p., intraperitoneal; b.i.d., twice per day; DH, Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive; Nx, nephrectomized; DN, Dahl salt-resistance normotensive; RF, renal function.

  • a For animal experiments, we presumed that serum albumin was present at the same concentrations as usually in these animals; all solute concentrations were measured in serum, except for the study by Ito et al.30 (plasma), and steady state at the end of exposure on euthanasia of the animals, except for the study by Koppe et al.44 (peak after i.p. injection). Also, dose and administration route are mentioned; the Albumin/Type Model column contains both species and type of model.

  • b In vitro part not appropriate.

  • c If concentration is 9.4–18.9, it is 9.4 for Dahl wild-type rats and 18.9 for DH rats.