Table 4.

Effects of regular exercise on immune and inflammatory parameters

ParameterExercise GroupControl GroupP Value
Baseline6 moBaseline6 moBaselineaEffectb
Total and differential blood leukocyte counts
 Leukocytes (×109/L)6.7±2.46.6±2.16.2±1.55.9±1.60.560.63
 Neutrophils (×109/L)4.3±1.84.2±1.63.9±1.33.6±1.20.560.53
 Lymphocytes (×109/L)1.5±0.61.6±0.61.5±0.31.6±0.50.970.96
 Monocytes (×109/L)0.6±0.20.5±0.20.5±0.20.4±0.20.660.37
Neutrophil degranulation (elastase release)
 Plasma elastase (µg/L)68±2263±2270±1862±90.830.71
 Total bacterially-stimulated elastase release (µg/L)3703±18923586±21073150±16362837±11340.670.71
 Bacterially-stimulated elastase release per neutrophil (fg/cell)522±121539±174530±144535±1410.990.98
SEB-stimulated CD4+ and CD8++ lymphocytes
 CD69+ cells (%)
  CD4+24±1020±826±822±80.650.59
  CD8++30±1524±1031±1028±80.790.41
 CD69 (GMFI)
  CD4+CD69+175±55143±53c131±41130±420.060.02
  CD8++CD69+110±4485±32c77±2382±230.050.002
SEB-stimulated CD14+CD86+HLA-DR+ monocytes
 CD86 (GMFI ratio to unstimulated cells)2.1±0.81.3±0.3c1.3±0.51.7±0.6c0.02<0.001
 HLA-DR (GMFI ratio to unstimulated cells)3.0±1.72.0±0.7c1.9±0.52.3±0.9c0.11<0.01
Plasma markers of systemic inflammation
 IL-6 (pg/ml)10.3±5.28.1±4.39.0±4.59.4±4.10.630.05
 IL-10 (pg/ml)3.1±1.14.6±2.74.4±1.93.9±1.50.150.04
 sTNF-RI (ng/ml)6.2±2.55.7±2.4c3.6±2.03.9±2.2<0.010.01
 sTNF-RII (ng/ml)15.6±6.513.9±5.014.1±7.015.2±9.40.560.08
 CRP (µg/ml)3.5±3.32.6±2.52.3±1.92.9±2.40.900.37
  • Data are mean±SD (n=13 exercise group; n=11 control group).

  • a Baseline comparison between groups (independent t tests).

  • b Effect of regular exercise (two-factor ANOVA: time×group interaction).

  • c P<0.05 versus baseline (paired t tests).