Table 2.

Adjusted HR (95% CI) of CVD according to quartiles of CAC, IMT, and ABI

Subclinical MeasuresCKDNo CKD
Q2Q3Q4P for TrendQ2Q3Q4P Value for Trend
CACNAa1.73 (1.13 to 2.64)3.02 (2.03 to 4.50)<0.001NAa1.80 (1.34 to 2.43)4.11 (3.11 to 5.44)<0.001
IMTb1.02 (0.59 to 1.75)1.12 (0.67 to 1.87)1.26 (0.76 to 2.07)0.210.97 (0.69 to 1.36)1.00 (0.71 to 1.39)1.37 (0.98 to 1.92)<0.01
ABI1.02 (0.65 to 1.60)1.01 (0.64 to 1.57)1.63 (1.09 to 2.45)0.0040.95 (0.71 to 1.28)1.05 (0.78 to 1.41)1.60 (1.21 to 2.13)0.001
  • Adjusted for age, sex, race, systolic BP, antihypertensive medications, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes (all continuous predictors were log-transformed). NA, not applicable.

  • a Approximately one half of participants had CAC score=0 and composed the reference group as Q1+Q2.

  • b Z score for overall maximal internal and common carotid IMT.